Mohenjo Daro (literally the Mound of the Dead Men) was a city in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization that emerged around 2600 BC. A relevant archaeological site is located in the current province of Sindh, Pakistan. It’s the largest ancient city of the Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world’s earliest urban settlements in the history of South Asia, contemporaneous to the civilizations of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Archaeologists first attended Mohenjo Daro in 1911. Regular excavations were carried out between 1922 and 1931. John Marshall who was in charge of the British expedition noted the “identity” of Mohenjo Daro finds with those from Harappa discovered 400 km upstream the Indus River. Later major series of excavations were conducted in 1950 and 1964, but the American expedition activity in 1964-1965 was terminated due to weathering damage to the exposed structures. In 1980 Mohenjo Daro was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site. Mohenjo Daro perimeter reaches five kilometres. The city area is divided into blocks (“islands”) of the same size (384 metres from the north to the south and 228 metres from the west to the east). Each block is in turn “cut” by straight or curved streets.
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KALKI is the tenth and final (according to the canonical list) avatar of god Vishnu; his other name is Vishnuyashas, meaning “endowed with Vishnu’s glory”. Kalki is usually attributed to the future, although recurrence of his descents to the earth may be assumed due to cycling Yugas, and his image manifestly represents the idea of messianism. Kalki image first appears in Mahabharata, integrated in the Brahmin teaching about the world and its destruction caused by humanity’s moral degradation. The image is also used in Vishnu Purana, Agni Purana, and Bhagavata Purana. Born in a Brahmin family in the town of Sambhala (Buddhist Shambala), Kalki witnesses human degradation in the age of Kali Yuga. He sees people’s viciousness, violation of eternal customs, traditions and rites, migration of population threatened by famine and oppression, power of barbarians who replace paltry rulers, and onset of discord provoked by “low” Dasyu and Sudras. Kalki rises against all this and exterminates barbarians and “low” ones, restores power of Chakravartin (the sovereign of the world) by means of royal rites (Asvamedha and Dividjaya), and renews the society based on Varna Ashrama Dharma, the universal religious law which orders every social class (varna) to perform certain duties on relevant stages of their life (ashrama). Kalki mythology was developing with a tendency to assimilate foreign beliefs, which was typical for Hinduism already at early stages of its development, and such tendency was supported by the soteriological spirit of the concept of avatars. Kalki activities include not just three most important functions of the perfect king, such as military, magic legal and fertile, but also the function of humanity salvation. Given the strengthening role and position of Buddhism, this Hindu figure may be regarded as a replica of the image of Maitreya, while similarities between Kalki and early Christian messiah images are more due to similar legend plots that emerged under similar historical circumstances (although here we cannot totally exclude Middle Eastern influence as well).
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