Mohenjo Daro (literally the Mound of the Dead Men) was a city in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization that emerged around 2600 BC. A relevant archaeological site is located in the current province of Sindh, Pakistan. It’s the largest ancient city of the Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world’s earliest urban settlements in the history of South Asia, contemporaneous to the civilizations of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Archaeologists first attended Mohenjo Daro in 1911. Regular excavations were carried out between 1922 and 1931. John Marshall who was in charge of the British expedition noted the “identity” of Mohenjo Daro finds with those from Harappa discovered 400 km upstream the Indus River. Later major series of excavations were conducted in 1950 and 1964, but the American expedition activity in 1964-1965 was terminated due to weathering damage to the exposed structures. In 1980 Mohenjo Daro was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site. Mohenjo Daro perimeter reaches five kilometres. The city area is divided into blocks (“islands”) of the same size (384 metres from the north to the south and 228 metres from the west to the east). Each block is in turn “cut” by straight or curved streets.
It is interesting that 384 and 228 make up 62.7 and 37.2 in percentage, which reflects the golden ratio or is very close to it at least. For practical purposes approximate values are used: Ф = 1.618 or Ф = 1.62. In round percentage the golden ratio means division of any value in ratio of 62 % to 38 %.
Mohenjo Daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning. Harappan settlements surrounded by mighty walls could occupy areas of hundreds of hectares. Major city streets were straight and rather broad, with houses properly placed, and intersected at the right angle. City buildings, usually two-storeyed, which could have an area of hundreds of square metres, were constructed of body bricks. They had neither architectural decorations nor windows looking out on the street, but they were quite comfortable, contained ablution rooms and could often have individual wells and sewage facilities. In Mohenjo Daro there was a general sewage system which is the most sophisticated of all known sewage systems of that time in ancient Oriental cities. It contained main canals, settling tanks and drainage facilities for the rainwater.
All buildings and structures in the city were thoroughly planned and perfectly executed. In the course of excavations numerous neatly made brick wells were discovered, which indicates well-arranged water supply. Moreover, a well-preserved public ablution pool was found in Mohenjo Daro: quite an advanced facility that assumes substantial experience of its constructors in such projects.
Culture of the population of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa urban settlements was quite advanced. This is evidenced in particular by a relatively high level of development of arts and crafts. Numerous objects found in excavations include seated and standing figures, copper and stone tools, carved seals, balance-scales and weights, gold and jasper jewellery, as well as children's toys. Seals carved of steatite (soapstone) or ivory, or made of copper and clay represent dainty works of art. More than 2 thousand such seals have been found. They are extremely interesting, because there are peculiar hieroglyphic inscriptions on many of them. Similar inscriptions are found on some metal items. Such samples of ancient Hindu script resemble the earliest scripts of Sumerians and other ancient peoples. Inscriptions in Mohenjo Daro and Harappa have attracted attention of many researchers; however, attempts to decode them still remain unsuccessful.
MOHENJO DARO FINDS
Description of the Harappan civilization and Mohenjo Daro seals is available in the AllatRa book (pages 412-436 of the book online version – see allatra.us). Let’s look at description of the seals.
Anastasia: This cannot be denied. Your words confirm like no other the material of archaeological excavations of the Harappan Civilization, which I brought with me to this meeting. People found what they had been looking for – signs, symbols, and unique artefacts, but interpretation of those by our contemporaries leaves much to be desired. I made drawings of the photos of archaeological findings, including some artefacts from Mohenjo Daro (conventional name of the ruins of once the largest city of the Harappan Civilization, which has been discovered in the IndusValley in present-day Pakistan). This is, for instance, the steatite seal that you told us about! A man is sitting in the lotus position on a dais. When I first saw this picture, I was surely struck by the fact that people five thousand years ago were doing the same spiritual practices as we perform now!
However, the museum description of this seal, as well as of other findings, once again made me smile sadly, because, in fact, this description reflects the world view of people who provided it. But probably I myself, had I not known about the existence of this spiritual practice, then, obviously, being in the shoes of these scholars, would have reasoned in the same way. Archaeologists describe this image in the following way: a naked male deity with three faces is sitting on a throne in a yoga position; there are bracelets on his arms; on his head there is a sophisticated headdress the top of which looks like “a branch of a fig tree.” Various assumptions are voiced, including such that if the man depicted on the seal has such “vegetation” over his head this probably symbolizes the power of this “three-faced deity” over nature.
Seal image of a man performing a spiritual practice on a sign (Harappan Civilization; 3–2nd millennia BC; IndusValley, South Asia)
Rigden: I believe if the person who made this seal heard such an interpretation of “learned men” from a distant future, he would be as surprised as they were upon discovering it. How low has the civilization dropped in spiritual development in the far future if its “best flower”, progressive-minded people, “learned scholars” reason like this?! How could have people forgot that which aids human spiritual liberation and is the main purpose of human life? Hence, for the ancient master such interpretation by modern humans would be no less an astonishment.
As far as the seal is concerned, these signs are like an open book for a person knowledgeable in the ancient secret writing of signs and symbols, which point at some basic meditative techniques and spiritual practices that lead to spiritual liberation. It is clearly shown here that the man is sitting in the lotus position. This is not a nude male deity. This is an indication of the meditation beginning: activation of the lower chakran (a burst of energy and its movement along energy meridians)... “The throne on hooves” simply indicates that the man is spiritually higher than his Animal Nature (the hooves symbolise the latter). Furthermore, in some cases such a conventional graphical designation (a small hill on which the meditator is sitting) may indicate a group Leader, when this spiritual practice is performed in a group. The four faces (the three visible masks and an invisible one) point at the level of this spiritual practice, in which the integrity of the four Aspects is already used to explore the invisible world. Incidentally, in ancient times they depicted three-facedness, almost always implying four faces (the fourth invisible side), as evidenced for example by myths and images of “gods” in the ancient Hindu civilization. The sign over his head is far from being “a branch of a fig tree.” This shows an outburst of energy from the “thousand-petaled lotus” chakran as well as activation of the indicated working sign during this meditation…
Anastasia: And here’s a copy of an image of the steatite seal discovered in Mohenjo Daro. You once told us about it. The knowledge about the Fiery Lotus group meditation is actually reflected here. Judging by the image, the leading person in the meditation is a woman who has connection with the spiritual world. On her head the AllatRa sign is placed.
Seal print image of a group meditation (Harappan Civilization; 3–2nd millennia BC; IndusValley, South Asia)
Although the seal is described in science books as a sacrificial ritual procession of seven figures, where a deity is standing on the sacred “fig tree.” It is clear that, when foundations of the spiritual knowledge as well as the sacred symbols and signs are lost in the human society, it is difficult to understand anything of the above from the perspective of material thinking. For the majority of people this picture will not go beyond their current view of the world even now.
Rigden: Everyone carries their own store of personal experience through life. Man judges the world by its contents, but actually this judgement of his is about himself. The material worldview makes people down-to-earth, enslaving the Soul even more, making the load even heavier and forcing man, like a convict, to drag these burdensome chains in his consciousness. The spiritual outlook lends wings to the Soul, it perfects and helps to form a personal store of solely spiritual world values that cannot be lost after the physical death of one’s body.
Anastasia: I am convinced yet again how important it is for a human being to have personal spiritual experience and Knowledge and treat his or her spiritual development with entire responsibility. After all, life passes very quickly. In the Harappan Civilization people knew about this for certain, if we judge by the remains of their culture. Here is an image of the seal print that you once mentioned as a symbolic outline of the meditation on the four Aspects. Again, it shows a three-faced man sitting in the lotus position. Above the meditator’s head, in the area of the “thousand-petaled lotus” chakran there is a symbolic depiction of the lotus flower (the flower was painted in the same way by ancient Egyptians) and a schematic designation of the Allat and AllatRa signs. And next to it, there is an inscription in the form of symbols and signs. And on the sides of the central image there are four beasts.
Seal with an image of the meditation on the four Aspects(Harappan Civilization; 3–2nd millennia BC; IndusValley, South Asia)
Besides, those four beasts are: an elephant, a tiger, a buffalo, and a one-horned rhinoceros! The elephant is shown as walking aside: this is a symbol of the Rear Aspect, of the man’s slow and strong past. The attacking tiger symbolizes the aggressive Right Aspect. The howling buffalo is a symbol of the Left Aspect if we consider the symbolism of ancient India and Southeast Asia, where buffalo symbolizes the supernatural power and the masculine principle. As for the one-horned rhinoceros, according to myths of the ancient Indus peoples, it’s a symbol of strength, insight, happiness, and a fearless creature of which even the tiger is afraid. That is, it is endowed with characteristics of the Front Aspect. And it is no coincidence that the symbol of one horn is shown here.
By the way, you know, I was surprised to discover that seals of the Harappan Civilization had a common motive of a sacred mythical creature with one horn (scientists call it the unicorn) shown next to sacred (spiritual) attributes. For me it was a very intriguing discovery, given all that you had told us earlier about this creature.
Rigden: Since ancient times, unicorn has been one of the symbols of the Front Aspect that helps a spiritually pure person connect with his or her Soul and abandon the circle of rebirths. It personified aspiration in only one direction – the spiritual one; that is why it was endowed with qualities typical for a person in the course of one’s spiritual development: purity, honour, wisdom, strength, courage, and good deeds; it was also associated with the powers of Allat, the divine purity of the feminine principle (myths of the Virgin and the unicorn).
Symbols in the form of unicorns on a seal of the Proto-Hindu civilization (Harappan Civilization; 3–2nd millennia BC; IndusValley, South Asia). The two unicorns on the seal (the neck and the horns are shown, indicating the helical (spiral) structure) with a circle in the middle form a conventional symbolic Allat sign with a circle (the AllatRa symbol); above it there is a rhombic structure and seven large leaves (indicating one’s spiritual transformation and access to the 7th dimension) as well as two small leaves on the sides of the rhombus. In the lower right corner of the seal, the rhombic sign with a sphere inside it (the rhombus sign is a sign of transformation) also points at the person who has attained spiritual liberation and entered the 7th dimension during his or her lifetime (the 4 circles in the corners of the rhombus indicate the four Aspects under full control; the inner circle is depicted as a symbol of the six-dimensional world; this symbol indicates cognition of all the six worlds by the person through inner learning).
If we trace the history of the symbols, we will see that, for example, Sumerians placed the unicorn image as a symbol associated with the circle (the Soul), which is interpreted by researchers as a “lunar symbol” as well as an attribute of goddesses in the meaning of spiritual purity. Assyrians depicted the unicorn on bas-reliefs next to the Tree of Life, and Egyptians put the best moral qualities in its image. Persians, according to their sacred knowledge, regarded the unicorn as perfection, a representative of the “pure world” among animals (originally the four animals), and its horn as the only force capable of defeating Ariman. Or let us take Old Slavic legends and epic tales recorded in the ancient Russian collection of spiritual songs called The Pigeon Book (the book that got banned by religious priests in the 13th century), in which the unicorn is referred to as Indrik-Beast (Indra). It contains the following lines:
“Our Indrik-Beast is the main beast,
And he goes, the beast, in the dungeons,
He crosses all the mountains of white stone
And clears all the creeks and streams.
When this beast leaps in joy,
The entire Universe stirs up.
All other beasts bow to this one beast,
And he never hurts anyone.”
Rigden: Quite right. All these animals are mere associations, which were clear to the thinking of people of that time and characterize peculiarities of the spiritual knowledge, meditations, and the view of the world that is totally different from the three-dimensional world. No more than that. But people are prone to imitate. In the absence of primordial Knowledge and experience in spiritual practices or simply due to misunderstanding of those they begin to take associations given in spiritual teachings for the material reality. Moreover, people make such associative images “sacred” from their material mind and start worshiping them in the material world, thinking this way they will achieve enlightenment and attain the “grace of heaven.” That is why history knows of incidents when the Knowledge was distorted and interpreted from the perspective of the human mind: when a spiritual teaching pointed that “in order to be a part of the divine, it is necessary to kill the beast in oneself”, ignorant people took these words literally. As a result, bloody sacrifices of animals and people emerged in the history of mankind, simply because of wrong or deliberately distorted interpretations of the remains of bygone Knowledge by those who controlled religious policies or influenced formation of beliefs of one or another nation. Today religions and their sacrifices look somewhat primitive in the eyes of people of the technological civilization, because sustenance and survival of the human society as a whole does not depend on their political plurality and the worship show to different gods. Now, the material “god” of the majority of living people is money as it used to be a goat in an ancient family. But some time will pass and material priorities will change again, although they will not stop being material because of that... Look at what kind of associations must be used today to renew the lost spiritual Truth – comparisons to generally comprehensible scientific information, associations with operation of computers, other equipment, etc. If masses of people do not change now in the spiritual aspect, it is quite possible that in the future, if such future comes for this human society at all, all this knowledge will also be seen literally by people, with perversions of the spiritual meaning.
Anastasia: I can imagine what kind of slogans technological priests can use: “Sacrifice nanomolecules of the latest selective modification to gods, and you will atone your sins for the whole month. Believe in the mind of the world Supercomputer, and you will be saved!”
Rigden: All this would be funny if it were not so sad. You may laugh at it, but people should give serious thought to this. It’s impossible to describe the spiritual world accurately – that world is completely different from the material one. But the spiritual world can really be felt by performing spiritual practices, overcoming one’s own egocentrism, and opening inside a way to the Eternal world.
Anastasia: This is really so. The essence of the things you have said can be especially understood only after one begins to discipline oneself, work spiritually and practice daily... To overcome one’s Animal Nature and spiritually liberate oneself has been the actual goal of all spiritual teachings since the Palaeolithic times. Another thing is how people recorded this knowledge in contrast to modern understanding of information transfer. Again, in the Harappan Civilization, for instance, another interesting print on terra cotta was found. One side of the plate depicts a person seated in the lotus position (the Observer) having a corresponding meditative symbol over his head. And next to him there is a person killing a buffalo (defeating his Animal Nature). Over the buffalo, there is a lizard with six spikes on the tail. Of course, scientific books suggest this is hunting, sacrifice, and so on...
Image symbolizing the victory over the Animal Nature (Harappan Civilization; 3–2nd millennia BC; IndusValley, South Asia)
Rigden: By the way, lizard is also an ancient traditional symbolic designation of a certain spiritual knowledge. It was considered to be a mystical creature, just like the snake, but, again, only because the life of this amphibian in the past was associatively compared to different spiritual processes. For example, its image was associated with the remote antiquity and the ancient structures of the brain as well as with connection with water (the other world), the fact of presence or immersion (of the Observer and his (her) entering into an altered state of consciousness through it) and penetration (tunnelling, the symbol of the Rear Aspect). The lizard image was also portrayed as a sign of wisdom, a danger warning, and a symbol of changes.
Regarding this figure, the lizard’s tail is marked not with spikes, but with a mere symbolic designation of mountains. It is in today’s society that we have an opportunity to speak about dimensions, multidimensionality of the world, and altered states of consciousness. In the distant past, however, such associative knowledge was expressed somewhat differently. For people who spent their whole lives surrounded by mountains, the difficult path of self-perfection and renunciation of their Animal Nature (worldly desires as well as self-centeredness) was compared to ascending a mountain (overcoming oneself), and passing dimensions in spiritual practices, as ascending the first mountain, and after it the second one, and so on. The mountain in many nations is a symbol of spiritual elevation, connection with supreme worlds, an associative image of connection with different worlds (for example, the earth and the sky, the earth and the underworld), and, respectively, the abode of beings of another world. Getting to the “other world” was only possible by overcoming oneself. But truth be told, because of such associations, when soulless and empty material imitations began, the mountain was defined as a place of sacrifice because it is supposedly “located closer to gods.”
Anastasia: The pattern on the other side of this terracotta form is also interesting. It shows a smiling woman who has grabbed two “tigers” (the lateral Aspects) by the throat, standing above an elephant (the symbol of the slow, passing, and strong past – the Rear Aspect). Her hair is like a symbolic image of 12 little rays. And over her head there is a sign of a diagonal cross in a circle with the lateral Aspects crossed out, which is a symbol of complete control over them. Researchers are at a loss as to interpreting the image because it is the only “Indus script” that depicts, in their opinion, “a spoked wheel above the head of a female deity.”
Rigden: Ah, had there been more such “wheels” in the spiritual history of mankind, and not in theory but in practice, such mankind would be priceless!
Anastasia: Well, considering historical artefacts, the lateral Aspects were held so tight “by the throat” and kept under control not only by the best representatives of the Proto-Indian civilization who once lived in Asia. Similar symbols are also present in the sacred symbolism of ancient Egyptians (Africa), Indians of Ancient Peru (South America), Scythians and Slavs (Europe). And, incidentally, afterwards we can see evident transformation of this ancient associative symbol of the lateral Aspects into a corresponding individual symbol in the form of a staff.
9 10 11 12
Symbolic depiction among different nations of the spiritual control by a person of his (her) lateral Aspects:
1 – an image on the terracotta form: an ancient symbol above the head of a smiling woman who keeps two “tigers” by the throat (Harappan Civilization; 3-2nd millennia BC; IndusValley, South Asia);
2 – an image of the Scythian goddess Agrimpasa who formed a part of the Scythian pantheon of seven gods (the 7-3rd centuries BC; Northern Black Sea region);
3 – the ancient Egyptian sign “ankh” holding two mythical animals with hooves (relief in the Egyptian temple of Sobek and Haroeris; year 80 BC; the city of Kom Ombo, Egypt);
4 – an old gold pendant of the peoples of South America in the form of a cube-shaped figure standing on a two-headed snake;
5 – the sign of a victorious deity, the thunder god of the ancient Slavs – Perun (before Christianity, he was considered to be the supreme god in the pantheon of Kievan Rus of the 9th century AD); according to the legend, after Perun’s victory over a mythical enemy, waters are released (in the archaic transformations of the myth, a godly woman (Mokosh) who has been kidnapped by his opponent is released), and heavenly moisture (rain) is shed;
6 – a white stone carving on the south facade of the cathedral of Saint Demetrius (a monument of the Russian architecture; the cathedral was built in the years 1194–1197; Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-Reserve; Vladimir, Russia);
7 – a rock painting (4-3rd millennia BC; the White Sea coast; Republic of Karelia, North-West Russia);
8 – a robe fragment of the Indian culture Paracas (5-3rd centuries BC; Ancient Peru; South America);
9 – an image of a Scythian Goddess on a bridle ornament – a golden equestrian front bridle (4th century BC; mound Large Tsimbalka, Zaporozhye region, Ukraine; the Hermitage museum Saint Petersburg, Russia);
10 – a slotted metal plate with an image of the Goddess (7-8th centuries; an archaeological finding in LakeChud, PermRegion, Russia; PushkinCherdynskyRegionalMuseum);
11 – an ancient Egyptian sacred sceptre “uas” in the form of a staff with a curved tip and a forked bottom (a head and hooves of an animal); an attribute of ancient Egyptian gods, meaning control (power) over the Animal Nature;
12 – a symbolic image of a dragon-like serpent with feathers in myths of North American Indians; myths mention that it symbolized storms; this dragon could only be defeated by the Great Hero who had moral purity and superior spiritual strength;
13 – the supreme deity of water and earth, a demiurge in the Inca religion – Viracocha (he holds two serpents in his hand – one with seven “divisions” of the body indicating seven dimensions, and the other one with three “divisions” of the body and cloven hooves indicating a three-dimensional world and the Animal Nature); (11-14th centuries AD, South America);
14 – the stele “Horus on the crocodiles” (3rd century BC; Ancient Egypt); Horus is depicted naked as a symbol of purity and not being burdened by material desires in his walk through this world (the importance of control of one’s Aspects is indicated here as well as the domination of non-material values in the human life).
The above extracts prove an obvious fact that Mohenjo Daro inhabitants possessed the Primordial Knowledge, and not just possessed, but applied it in practice, taking care of their spiritual development. On the internet I came across an interesting interpretation of the hieroglyphs present on one of the aforesaid seals.
It’s a rather interesting interpretation, taking into account thata meditation on the four Aspects is shown on the seal.
For a long time scientists have been racking their brains over the great riddle of this city dating back to over 5,000 years ago, and they still haven’t arrived at a single opinion on the origin of this culture. Only about 10 percept of the settlement have been uncovered and cleaned until today. The excavated area of Mohenjo Daro makes up 260 hectares or over 2.5 square km. City outskirts currently remain under silty sediments of the Indus. Excavations were carried out here before 1960s. As archaeologists were moving further downwards, saline water started getting in their way. Saline deposites are seen everywhere on local bricks. Salts began to erode the city remains, and so UNESCO made a decision to terminate excavations.
There is another interesting point relating to someone’s desire to conceal the truth: they managed to excavate quite a lot already, while a significant area still remains unexplored. Moreover, the ruins have been restored. Russian researcher Andrew Sklyarov writes: “Some sources mentioning the Davenport-Vincenti version assert that in the human remains (found beyond the epicentre) radioactivity exceeded the norm more than 50 times… To my regret, I couldn’t find neither confirmation of such statements nor any (even questionable) information about who exactly performed radioactivity tests of the remains and when such tests were performed. Unfortunately, now it’s basically impossible to verify Davenport’s and Vincenti’s conclusions on the explosive character of ravages in Mohenjo Daro, since after the thorough “restoration” carried out in the last decades the city appearance has significantly changed: brick blockages have been taken away and walls have been restored. So, now we can only see another “Disneyland for tourists” there…”
As for UNESCO, I will never believe it was impossible to invite several talented engineers to solve the saline water issue. I think if they really desired they would have solved it and let excavations be continued, so that the world could see many more seals like those described above, along with other artefacts. At that, since we see no new finds,this is probably beneficial for somebody, and it’s certainly clear who benefits from all this.
Let’s go back to the AllatRa book and recall the story of St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kiev.
page 527 (allatra.us)
Rigden: Well, yes, a torchlight procession. As they say, he who has ears, let him hear. It will not be difficult for clever people to understand why St. Sophia’s Cathedral became the first architectural monument in the territory of Ukraine which was inscribed on the UNESCO Worldwide Heritage list, meaning it is forbidden to rebuild it, transfer it to any religious organisations or hold church services in it.
Anastasia: It turns out Freemasons inspired by the Archons rebuilt the original cathedral, and now they use their own specious tool UNESCO to impose conditions on local residents that the cathedral may not be rebuilt and, moreover, traditional Orthodox church services are not allowed in it? It’s not allowed, so to say, to activate the “pearl”?! Well… This cannot be called other than lawlessness.
One of the probable reasons of the entire mess with termination of excavations and the restoration can be Mohenjo Daro destruction. Let’s consider possible causes of the city ruin. Conducted studies lead to the following conclusion: Mohenjo Daro faced an environmental disaster that happened suddenly and did not last long. However, the disaster power and effect was such that caused a sudden and irreversible destruction of the whole city. It is also interesting that other neighbouring big cities perished almost simultaneously with Mohenjo Daro.
According to some records, on the mound where the city was situated a mighty explosion took place, ruins of city buildings were melted, and skeletons discovered in the explosion area were radioactive. Supposedly as long ago as in 1927 archaeologists found 27 or 44 extant human skeletons with an increased level of radiation. This became a concern for the authorities, since it would not be good to provide people with evidence that in the mid 2nd millennium somebody used high-powered nuclear bombs. A different version was needed. First they launched a message via mass media that one hundred forty kilometres away from Mohenjo Daro an epicentre of an ancient earthquake was supposedly found, which exactly had caused the tragedy. However, nobody believed that an earthquake could have melted stones. Then a certain A.P. Nevsky made a statement there had been a comet. Allegedly, when the comet entered the atmosphere an electrostatic discharge of millions of amperes was generated and destroyed the city. At that, no traces of floods, volcanic eruptions or big meteorite falls have been discovered in Mohenjo Daro.
1. In Vokrug Sveta (“Around the World”) magazine, edition No.7 of 1987, Prof. M. Dmitriyev’s article Black Lightnings over Mohenjo Daro was published. In this work, the high temperature that had melted stones in the “explosion epicentre” was accounted for an explosion of many ball lightnings or physicochemical formations (PCF) (black lightnings), which are unstable and cause drastic temperature increases when they get disintegrated. Such formations can exist for a very long time and emit toxic gases. It is assumed such gases “suffocated” the settlement inhabitants. It’s noteworthy that PCFs can explode like ordinary ball lightnings. Supporters of this hypothesis explain that melted stones and human skeletons in Mohenjo Daro streets were exactly the result of aggression of a huge accumulation of “black lightnings”.
It’s hard to believe in some wild black lightnings which suddenly attacked the city for no reason, unless somebody purposefully directed those lightnings at the city.
2. D. Rakes who examined the structure of ground layers in Mohenjo Daro area ascertained that one hundred and forty kilometres away from the city there was a centre of a mighty earthquake that changed the appearance of the whole IndusValley. Perhaps, everything started from the earthquake. Apparently, it reared the earth, the Indus got blocked, and its waters reversed. Then mud avalanches started advancing. Settlements near Mohenjo Daro were buried under a multi-metre layer of silt and sand. City dwellers tried to protect themselves and began to erect dikes, remains of which were found during excavations, but it was further harder for them to resist water and mud avalanches. Scientists assume the mud sea was advancing for about a hundred years. Eventually the disaster prevailed, and the city perished.
The type of destructions in the city was such that the greater destruction was in the centre and less destruction was in the outskirts. Earthquakes produce a different type of destructions.
3. Some historians believe the city suffered a series of mighty floods: the Indus frequently overflowed and inundated Mohenjo Daro, forcing its inhabitants to abandon the city. As photographs taken from the space show, riverbeds of the Indus and other local rivers changed their course numerous times due to crust shifts. Moreover, the Indus repeatedly inundated Mohenjo Daro, damaging its sewage system, which in the hot climate environment caused terrible epidemics that literally exterminated people, while those who survived hastily abandoned the city. To support such version, researchers refer to archaeologists who determined seven or nine layers of silt between the layers of Mohenjo Daro mature culture. Hence, the city was consecutively destroyed and restored at least seven times, and each time new settlements were built over old ones.
In my opinion, this only indicates the city was very, very old, and nothing more than that.
4. Mohenjo Daro and ancient weapons
This version was expounded in the book Atomic Destructionin 2000 BC (1979) by David Davenport and Ettore Vincenti. The British researcher of ancient Hindu cultures and languages and Sanskrit expert D. Davenport was born and lived for a certain while in India. He was ridden by an idea of translating ancient Hindu texts from Sanskrit into English and objective interpretation of the philosophic meaning and historical facts given in the texts. Besides, for 12 years he lived in Pakistan, examining the ruins of Mohenjo Daro. D. Davenport and the Italian researcher E. Vincenti determined that approximately 3,700 years ago, at the top of the mound around which Mohenjo Daro had been constructed, a mighty explosion similar to a nuclear explosion took place (by various estimations, the date varies from 1500 to 2000 BC). In the aforesaid book they included a scheme of destruction of the city buildings. If we look closer at the scheme, we can see a clearly outlined epicentre inside which all buildings and structures were wiped off the face of the earth. As we move from the centre towards the periphery, destructions are decreasing and gradually brought to nought. It becomes clear why buildings in the outskirts are the best preserved in Mohenjo Daro. Upon thorough examination of ruined buildings Davenport and Vincenti determined the explosion epicentre diameter was about 50 m. In this area everything’s crystallized and melted, and all buildings are totally ruined. At the distance of up to 60 m from the explosion epicentre bricks and stones are melted on one side, which indicates the explosion direction.
It is known that stones get melted at the temperature of about 2000 °С. In this area they also discovered sand that turned into glass. (Similar strata of green glass were found in the desert of the state of Nevada (USA) after nuclear weapon tests.)
From the centre to the periphery the degree of building destructions gradually decreases. Researchers have also ascertained the ancient city was ruined by three mighty blast waves which spread one mile away from the explosion epicentre. Amidst the ruins, in the area of over 400 metres in radius, pieces of clay, ceramics and some minerals were scattered, which had undergone rapid melting. All people who were in the epicentre vanished immediately, therefore archaeologists found no skeletons there. Researchers sent the so-called black stones scattered in the city streets to the Institute for Mineralogy of the Sapienza University of Rome and to the laboratory of the National Research Council (Italy). It turned out the black stones were nothing but pottery fragments that had caked at the temperature of about 1400-1600 °С and then hardened.
In their studies Davenport and Vincenti referred not just to the type of destructions and the analysis of Mohenjo Daro ruins, but also to ancient Hindu texts where the use of “the weapons of gods” was repeatedly described. The texts mention an explosion of a weapon “sparklinglikefire, yetnotmakingsmoke”, of which the sky above the city turned dark and fine weather gave way to hurricanes that “brought evil and death”. Clouds and earth mixed together, and in the chaos of madness even the sun and the moon started moving differently in the sky. Elephants burnt by the fire were dashing around in horror; water was boiling, fish charred, and warriors threw themselves into the water in vain attempt to wash the “lethal dust” off their bodies. The authors of the aforesaid nuclear hypothesis admit that Mohenjo Daro enemies were not only familiar with nuclear explosives, but also possessed technical means – “vimanas” to deliver bombs. According to David Davenport, “those places in the Mahabharata where a strange weapon is described not in general words but in specific terms, provoke even greater amazement.”
Detailed information about vimanas is contained in the Vimanika Shastra (Vaimānika Śāstra), or Vimanika Prakaranam(Sanskrit “Shastra on the topic of Vimanas” or “Treatise of Aeronautics”). According to some sources, Vimanika Shastrawas discovered in 1875 in one of Hindu temples. It was composed in the 4th century BC by the sage Maharṣi Bharadvāja who used more ancient texts as his sources. Other records indicate the text was written in 1918-1923 by G. Venkatachala Sharma as narration of a story told by the sage and medium Pandit Subbaraya Shastry who dictated 23 books of Vimanika Shastra in a hypnotic trance state. Subbaraya Shastry himself asserted the book text had been written down on palm leaves during several millennia and verbally transferred from generation to generation. He claimed Vimanika Shastra was a part of sage Bharadvāja’s extensive treatise entitled Yantra Sarvasva (Sanskrit “Encyclopaedia of Machinery” or “All about Machines”). According to other experts, it is approximately a 1/40 of the Vimana Vidyana (“Science of Aeronautics”). Vimanika Shastra was first published in Sanskrit in 1943. Three decades later it was translated into English by G. R. Josyer, Director of the International Academy of Sanskrit Research in Mysore (India), and in 1979 its English version was published in India.
Vimanika Shastracontains numerous references to works by 97 ancient researchers and experts on aircraft construction and operation, study of materials, and meteorology.
The book describes four types of aircraft (including those that could not catch fire or be broken): Rukma Vimana, Sundara Vimana, Tripura Vimana, and Shakuna Vimana. The first of the listed had a conic shape and a rocket-lie configuration. Tripura Vimana was a three-level, and on it second level there were passenger cabins; this multipurpose aircraft could be used for both aerial and underwater journeys. Shakuna Vimana resembled a big bird.
All the aircraft were made of metals. The book mentions three types of such metals: somaka, soundaalika, and mourthwika, as well as alloys enduring very high temperatures. Furthermore, Vimanika Shastraprovides information on 32 major aircraft components and 16 materials applied for the aircraft manufacture, which materials absorb light and heat. Diverse on-board devices and mechanisms are most often called yantras (machines) or darpanas (mirrors). Some of them resemble modern TV screens, other look like radar sets, still other resemble photographic cameras; the book also mentions equipment similar to electric current generators, solar energy absorbers, and so on.
A whole chapter in Vimanika Shastra covers description of such device as guhaa-garbha aadarsha yantra. By means of this device, from a flying vimana it was possible to determine locations of items hidden underground!
The book also contains detailed descriptions of seven mirrors and lenses that were installed on board of vimanas for visual observations. Thus, one of the mirrors called the Pinjulaa mirror was intended to protect pilots’ eyes from enemy’s blinding “evil rays”. Vimanika Shastra names seven energy sources setting aircraft in motion: fire, earth, air, solar energy, lunar energy, water, and space. By using these energy sources, vimanas gained capabilities and powers beyond those accessible for contemporary earthmen. For instance, such power as goodha let vimanas become invisible to enemies, paroksha could disable other aircraft, and pralaya could emit electric charges and destroy obstacles. By using the energy of space, vimanas could distort space and create visual or real effects: starry sky, clouds, etc. The book also tells about the aircraft operation and servicing rules, describes pilot training methods, dietary patterns, and methods of making special pilot protective clothing. It also contains information on aircraft protection against hurricanes and lightnings, and an instruction on engine switching to “solar energy” from the source of free energy – “antigravity”.
In Vimanika Shastra 32 secrets are disclosed, which an aeronaut should learn from competent instructors. Among those there are quite comprehensible flight requirements and rules, e.g. account of meteorological conditions. However, most of the secrets relate to the knowledge unattainable for us today, such as an ability to make vimana invisible for enemies during a battle, increase or decrease vimana size, etc. Here are some of such secrets:
"…by harnessing the powers, Yaasaa, Viyaasaa, Prayaasaa in the 8th atmospheric layer covering the earth, to attract the dark content of the solar ray, and use it to hide the Vimaana from the enemy…”
“…by means of the Vynarathya Vikarana and other powers in the heart centre of the solar mass, attract the force of the ethereal flow in the sky, and mingle it with the balaahaavikarana shakti in the aerial globe, producing thereby a white cover, which will make the Vimana invisible…”
“…by entering the second of the summer cloud layers, and attracting the power therein with the shaktyaakarshana darpana or force-attraction mirror in the Vimana, and applying it to the parivesha or halo of the Vimaana, a paralysing force is generated, and opposing Vimaanas are paralysed and put out of action…”
“…by projection of the Rohinee beam of light, things in front of the Vimaana are made visible…”
“…by attracting the dandavaktra and other seven forces of air, and joining with solar rays, passing it through the zig-zagging centre of the Vimana, and turning the switch, the Vimana will have a zig-zagging motion like a serpent…”
“…by means of the photographic yantra in the Vimana to obtain a television view of things inside an enemy plane…”
“…by electrifying the three acids in the north-east part of the Vimana, and subjecting them to the 7 kinds of solar rays, and passing the resultant force into the tube of the Thrisheersha mirror and making the cloth screen face the mirror, and switching on the upper key, all the activities going on down below on the ground, will be projected on the screen…”
EXTRACTS FROM THE MAHABHARATA, OR THE LEGEND OF THE GREAT BATTLE OF BHARATA DESCENDANTS
“Thou didst in fury slay Indradyumna and the Yavana called Kaseruman! And slaying Salwa the lord of Saubha, thou didst destroy that city of Saubha itself!”
“The king of Saubha, however, thus attacked in battle by Pradyumna, endured him not, but discharged at my son arrows that were like blazing fire. But the mighty Pradyumna parried off that arrowy shower. Beholding this, Salwa rained on my son other weapons of blazing splendour.”
“Only that mighty mass of clouds called Arjuna, aided by Krishna like unto a powerful wind, with celestial weapon representing its fierce lightning, the white steeds, the rows of white cranes coursing underneath and the unbearable Gandiva, the rainbow ahead, is capable of extinguishing the blazing flame represented by Karna by means of its arrowy showers let off with unflagging steadiness.”
“Indeed, it was the illustrious Indra who created (by lending a portion of himself) the mighty car-warrior Ghatotkacha as a fit antagonist of Karna of unrivalled energy, in consequence of the dart he had given unto Karna (and which was sure to kill the person against whom it would be hurled).”
“Then twenty thousand Panchala car-warriors of great energy covered him, while he was thus careering in battle, with their shafts. Completely shrouded with those shafts, we could not any longer see that great car-warrior who then resembled, O monarch, the sun, covered with clouds in the season of rains. Filled with wrath and desirous of compassing the destruction of those brave Panchalas, that mighty car-warrior, that scorcher of foes, viz., Drona, dispelling all those shafts of the Panchalas, then invoked into existence the Brahma weapon. At that time, Drona looked resplendent like a smokeless, blazing fire. Oncemore filled with rage the valiant son of Bharadwaja slaughtering all the Somakas, seemed to be invested with great splendour.”
“Then Drona's son, aiming at the host of the Pandavas and the Panchalas, invoked the weapon called Narayana. Then thousands of arrows with blazing mouths appeared in the welkin, resembling snakes of fiery mouths, that continued to agitate the Pandavas. In that dreadful battle, those shafts, O king, like the very rays of the sun in a moment shrouded all the points of the compass, the welkin, and the troops. Innumerable iron balls also, O king, then appeared, like resplendent luminaries in the clear firmament. Sataghnis, some equipped with four and some with two wheels, and innumerable maces, and discs, with edges sharp as razor and resplendent like the sun, also appeared there. Beholding the welkin densely shrouded with those weapons, O bull of Bharata's race, the Pandavas, the Panchalas, and the Srinjayas, became exceedingly agitated. In all those places, O ruler of men, where the great car-warriors of the Pandavas contended in battle, that weapon became exceedingly powerful.”
“And then the mighty son of Radha used Parasurama weapon, filling everything around with thousands of flaming arrows, and the army of Pandavas got horrified.”
“O thou of mighty arms, this very superior and irresistible weapon called Brahmasira with the methods of hurling and recalling it. Thou must not, however, ever use it against any human foe, for if hurled at any foe endued with inferior energy, it might burn the whole universe.”
“What is there in the world which is unattainable to those who cannot among their warriors Savyasachin skilled in arms; who have the Gandiva, the most powerful of all weapons in the world, for their bow; and who have amongst them the mighty Bhima also as a warrior?”
“My wretched sons, who have to fight with the invincible Pandavas are indeed, all doomed. Reflecting day and night, I see not the warrior amongst us that is able to stay in battle before the wielder of the Gandiva. If Drona, or Karna, or even Bhishma advance against him in battle, a great calamity is likely to befall the earth.”
“That fierce weapon, known by the name of Brahmasira which arose after Amrita, and which Rudra had obtained by means of ascetic austerities, hath been acquired by Arjuna together with the Mantras for hurling and withdrawing it, and the rites of expiation and revival. And, O Yudhishthira, Arjuna of immeasurable prowess hath also acquired Vajras and Dandas and other celestial weapons from Yama and Kuvera and Varuna and Indra.”
“That region where the weapon called brahmashira is baffled by another high weapon suffers a drought for twelve years…”
“This blade of grass (inspired into a fatal weapon) will, however, fall into the wombs of the Pandava women, for this weapon is high and mighty, and incapable of being frustrated. O regenerate one, I am unable to withdraw it, having once let it off. I will now throw this weapon into the wombs of the Pandava women.”
“The brahmana Ashvatthama, however, O Bharata, baffled that weapon in that battle. Indeed, all those weapons that Arjuna sped from desire of slaying the son of Drona were baffled by the latter, that great bowman, in that encounter. During the progress of that awful encounter of weapons, O king, we beheld the son of Drona to resemble the Destroyer himself, with gaping mouth.”
“Of great fame, he was loved by all men. And he was born in the womb of Uttara when the Kuru race was almost extinct. And, therefore, the mighty son of Abhimanyu came to be called Parikshit (born in an extinct line). Well-versed in the interpretation of treatises on the duties of kings, he was gifted with every virtue.”
According to experts, over 90 typesofweapons are mentioned in ancient Hindu texts, e.g.: Agneyastra, Brahmastra, Chakram, Garudastra, Kaumodaki, Narayanastra, Pashupata, Shiva Dhanush, Sudarshana Chakra, Trishul, Vaishnavastra, Varunastra, Vayavastra – nearly every character has his own kind of weapon. Of all weapons Brahmastra is the most powerful one. As the texts indicate, in order to activate it one needed just to touch the water for purification and focus on utterance of a special mantra. According to the texts, this weapon could be applied by gods only.
Mahabharata mentions such words as: moha – a weapon causing loss of consciousness; shatani – a weapon that kills hundreds of people simultaneously; tvashtra – a means to cause chaos in the enemy’s ranks; varshana – a means causing heavy rains; guhaa-garbhadarpana – a directional energy weapon that uses the energy of the sun, wind and ether and concentrates it through a special mirror; rowdree darpana – another directional energy device accumulating sunbeams and discharging a high-temperature ray that can fuse any item at which it is aimed.
An interesting weapon “collection” was presented by Rostislav Furduy in his book The Lost Civilization and Miraculous Weapons. Some of weapons he mentions are described in Virata Parva and Udyoga Parva (Books 4 and 5 of the Mahabharata). Below there are descriptions given by V.I. Kalyanov in commentaries to these two Books of the Mahabharata.
Shuka: a weapon preventing elephants and horses from movement, as if they get trapped. Sometimes it is called mohana (“weapon that throws into disarray”).
Kakudika: a weapon that throws warriors who are fighting on chariots and elephants into an unconscious state, also called prasvapana (“throwing into sleep”).
Naka: a weapon that drives people mad and makes them unconscious.
Akshisamtarjana: a weapon hardly material, but representing a mantra (a spell). As soon as it is pronounced, it’s enough for a person to cast a look at enemy warriors, and all of them start trembling of fear, let out faeces and urine. It is also called srasana (“terrifying”).
Santana: a whole class of weapons, e.g. aindra (patronized by god Indra) that helps making endless series of weapons of a single weapon produced.
Nartana: a weapon that forces a person affected by it to dance around furiously; another name for this weapon is paisacha (“devilish”).
Ghora: a weapon that causes terrible ruin or continuous extermination of enemy warriors and is also called rakshasa (“demonic”).
Asyamodaka orYamya: just like akshisamtarjana, it hits by means of mantras. An affected person himself seeks death in the most terrible form.
Agnea: a certain kind of a firearm that causes conflagration.
Hence, we have quite enough information in order to understand that people in ancient India had both “tactical” and “strategic” weapons. On this subject there is a very interesting book War in Ancient India by the Hindu researcher V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, which was published in India as long ago as in 1949.
Could application of anything like the weapons listed above destroy the city of Mohenjo Daro?
For all that, any knowledge is a power that can be used either for humanity’s benefit or for extermination of other people. Let’s see how we use the knowledge nowadays.
In the 20th century theoretical physics development led to creation of a nuclear bomb. Julius Robert Oppenheimer was a talented theoretical physicist who’s called the “father of the atomic bomb”. The nuclear bomb was first tested in New Mexico in July 1945. Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendour of the Mighty One… I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.”
Outcome: The total number of victims was 90 to 166 thousand people in Hiroshima and 60 to 80 thousand in Nagasaki. Yet, the most interesting thing is that there are still individuals who discuss expediency of atomic bombing and even justify killing of hundreds of thousands of people. Are such individuals human at all?
On 1 November 1952, the USA blew up the world’s first thermonuclear bomb on Enewetak Atoll.
On 12 August 1953, the USSR blew up the world’s first H-bomb – the Soviet РДС-6 on Semipalatinsk firing ground...
Chemistry: Convulsant gases that affect the nervous system. The purpose of convulsant gases is to ensure fast and mass disability of manpower with as many lethal ends as possible. This group of substances includes sarin, soman, tabun and V-gases.
Skin affecting PS (poisonous substances) that mostly affect the body though skin; when used as sprays or vapours they also affect people though respiratory organs. Major PS of this type are yperite and lewisite.
Generally toxic PS that disrupt oxygen transfer from blood to tissues after getting into the body. These are among the most fast-acting PS. Examples: prussic acid and chlorine cyanide.
Suffocants that mostly affect lungs. Major PS of this type are phosgene and diphosgene.
Psychochemical PS that can disable enemy manpower for a certain while. These PS affect the central nervous system and disrupt normal psychic activity in people or cause such disorders as temporary blindness, deafness, fear or limitation of motor functions. Exposure to such substances at doses that cause psychic disorders does not lead to death. PS of this group include 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ) and lysergic acid diethylamide.
Biology: Biological weapons include pathogenic organisms or their spores, viruses, bacterial toxins, infected people and animals, as well as means of delivery of those (rockets, controllable shells, automatic balloons, aircraft) intended for mass destruction of enemy manpower, agricultural animals or sown croplands, as well as for damaging certain kinds of military materials and equipment. Such weapons are mass annihilation weapons prohibited under the Geneva Protocol of 1925.
It would seem that such sciences as physics, chemistry and biology should work for humanity’s benefit. However, as we can see, they are intended not just for the benefit, but rather for mass destruction of people themselves. Why is it so? ... Our society that considers itself civilized (as a matter of fact, to consider does not mean to be), how is it structured? It is structured according to the principle of domination of one individual over another, and so everyone endeavours to dominate over somebody at home, at work, everywhere, and one considers oneself better than others. Consciousness has separated everyone and uses the outcome. In such society an individual takes a stick and starts brandishing it in front of another individual in order to prove his importance, while the second individual who’s looking at the stick searches for a bigger stick in order to brandish it in front of the first individual. Thus, we keep brandishing sticks at each other. Yet, as it is known, “even a stick can shoot once in a while”. Perhaps, it would be better to put down all those sticks already… what do we need them for? All people are brothers, and we have nothing to argue about. If we unite all together, we can build a world where there will be neither wars nor discord, where a brother won’t have to kill his brother, and a son won’t have to oppose his father, and where nobody will even think of using science for killing other people. For such society the KNOWLEDGE will also be only for the benefit.
This gives interested people something to think about…
Videos on the subject:
Anastasia Novykh. AllatRa Mahabharata, or The Legend of the Great Battle of Bharata Descendants Materials by P. Olexenko and А.V. Koltypin, posted on the website http://www.dopotopa.com Wikipedia