As usual, there are numerous hypotheses, beginning with extraterrestrial and up to simple ones.
- The most widespread way to build dolmens was probably the following. An artificial mound was made, into which they dug vertical stones (one or several). Then they dragged another stone up the mound slope and placed it on stone pillars, and such stone served as a vertical partition. Thereafter they gradually demolished the mound, and the finished dolmen remained.
- There are many unclear points however. On one hand, monolithic slabs were made of various materials, while on the other hand it is assumed that dolmen builders were unaware of steel… Nevertheless, official science says such slabs were somehow hewed and moved even many tens of kilometres away, although they sometimes weighed more than a loaded KamAZ truck. Not so long ago a hypothesis emerged that the slabs used for construction of megaliths were made of a special mortar right at the dolmen site, whereas grooves and ornaments were applied to the unhardened paste with simple tools.
- Dolmen material plays a particular role. Dolmens were erected of quartz sandstone. Quartz crystals produce a piezoelectric effect: by means of these crystals mechanical power can turn into electric power, and vice versa.
- Many dolmens are located in mountainous areas difficult of access. Even if there were stone quarries nearby, it was a very hard task to deliver massive building blocks along mountain paths without special devices and tractive power. In most cases builders had to transport huge stone slabs tens of kilometres away from a construction site across a barely passable area, through mountains, rocks, woods and rivers! Well, there is a hypothesis however that wooded areas partly favoured transportation, since it was possible to put rolling logs under stone slabs and thus move the load. At that, a performed dendrological analysis indicates that most probably 5 thousand years ago the region around Anapa was covered with low growing bushes only, which totally excludes possibility to move heavy loads without logs.
Why for construction of dolmens did they choose quartz sandstone that is so rare in the North Caucasus and possesses a marvellous property to generate electricity?
By one of theories, in the 4-3rd millennia BC there existed some mysterious civilization in the territory of Northwest Caucasus, and its representatives were those who built Caucasian megaliths. A verbal legend of this people existed for about 2000 years, then its traces got lost, and now we have only ancient Adygei legends and myths about a people of giants and dwarfs who used to inhabit this region in the remote past. The giants often offended the dwarfs, but the dwarfs were artful and forced the giants to build houses of huge stone slabs (dolmens) for them. This enigmatic civilization possessed a perfect and unusual technology for that age, which made it possible to build dolmens with no tools.
According to the aforesaid hypothesis, the unknown people neither carved their giant stone blocks and slabs of rocks, nor transported them tens of kilometres away from stone quarries to dolmen construction sites, but rather used a casting method. That is, separate dolmen elements were founded of a “sand-and-cement paste” exuding to the ground surface from the subsoil in fault areas. A foundation pit could be dug in the ground to serve as a cast for future dolmen slabs. Mound could be formed via ground filling, and excess ground was extracted through an aperture in the slab. Such technology partly explains perfect adjustment of the slabs. As for the “sand-and-cement paste”, it could indeed be found in this region, which is indirectly evidenced by the availability of mud volcanoes, sandy rock massifs and water solutions softening clay rocks.
In his studies, V.N. Kholodov (researcher at Geological Institute of the RussianAcademy of Sciences) considers complex processes of physical and chemical transformation of sedimentary rock formation, in particular in the Azov and Kuban basin. According to his research works dedicated to the “law of physical and chemical heredity”, and based on some other geological data, it may be assumed that unique natural “sand-and-cement paste” formations once emerged in the area of Caucasian geological faults, and such paste came out exactly through the faults. Ancient builders used this “natural concrete” for construction of dolmens and could move it long distances away to their construction sites; then they erected dolmens almost with no tools or special equipment. All this partly explains why dolmens are located in the areas of tectonic faults. After all, exactly in such places the “sand-and-cement mortar” comes out to the surface from the subsoil.
Technology of dolmen construction (V. Yashkardin’s opinion)
My major studies cover the functioning of megalithic structures, including dolmens. Therefore, as for dolmen construction, I can only briefly express my opinion. I once was enraptured by a remarkable work by Yuri Nikolayevich Sharikov and Oleg Nikolayevich Komissar, entitled Ancient Technology of Caucasian Dolmens (2008), where they convincingly show a possibility to apply plastic (moulding) technology for dolmen construction. I won’t retell their work and recommend everyone interested to read it in full.
To all appearances, ancient people could produce plastic sandstone or had access to natural plastic sandstone.
Hundreds of researchers saw this stone, and many people dived from it. Perhaps, Frédéric Dubois de Montpéreux was sitting on it in 1834, waiting for a passing ship for two weeks. We know at that time he was composing his GelendzhikBay map, for he spent quite a long while on this shore. Only in 2013 it became possible to see this sandstone block from above and view the amazing drawing on it. Hence, mysteries of past civilizations are waiting for their discoverers. Our thoughts are devoted to the memory of ancestors, and many secrets will be uncovered for us.
Dolmens and Tholoses
Long disputes take place in scientific archaeological circles, as to which monuments should be labelled as dolmens, and this is not very easy to determine because many megalithic structures have common features. For instance, after L.G. Nechayeva and V.V. Krivitsky discovered Bronze Age burial vaults near Irganay and Ginchi (Dagestan), Egikal (Ingushetia) and Ust-Dzhegutinsk (Karachai-Cherkess), they started calling them compound dolmens, with which V.I. Markovin disagreed.
I can express my opinion on the matter. All megalithic structures have a pronounced technological similarity, since most of them were made for an identical functional purpose. Studying underground cupola tombs (tholoses) of Greece, Bulgaria and Crimea, one finds identical construction techniques in such stone structures, e.g. dromos incline relative to the resonance chamber axis, which is explained by certain local conditions of wave energy reception.
Should you look at Psynako dolmen complex this will strike your eye:
The dromos design fully reproduces the dromoi of early underground cupola tombs.
The dolmen is placed into an underground dome, i.e. into a typical underground cupola tomb.
We can observe an obvious incline of the dromos relative to the dolmen axis, just like in some tholoses (underground cupola tombs).
Moreover, archaeologists have admitted those who built tholoses ensured dromos incline on purpose.
Hence, in Psynako the dromos was also inclined deliberately, but not because the builders were unable to make it straight. At that, archaeologists cannot explain the reason. It is possible to study and classify such objects only by their functionality, but not by the stones they are made of – flat or uneven. Unfortunately, science has driven itself into an archaeological blind alley from where it cannot escape.
If our civilization was excavated by present-day archaeologists, all wave technology facilities such as:
would have been regarded as tombs, sanctuaries or cult structures.
It is nice that in our times many geologists started engaging in archaeology and moved the age of megaliths back to many centuries. Geology is an exact science very difficult to argue with. Thus, in works by geologist A.V. Koltypin the age of megaliths is said to be millions of years, based on geological data. Moreover, physicists have also started paying attention to dolmens and already give completely different pictures of the megalithic world (Yu.M. Shvaydak and R.S. Furduy).
I am strongly convinced the megalithic summit will be first conquered by wave technicians and communications engineers. Such experts should only get involved in solution of the riddles of wave structures of the megalithic civilization, for they are now busy with creation of future “tombs”.
So, we do have some food for reflections. In my personal opinion, dolmens, pyramids and other mysterious structures were constructed by means of a focused acoustic wave adjusted to the frequency necessary for moving a certain item, slab, stone, etc. (with the help of dolmens themselves, as an option). For those who have doubts let me present several informative videos (if you find time to view them, and if you ignore certain comments of the authors, you might arrive at interesting thoughts and ideas):
Let us proceed to hypotheses on the dolmen purpose
Just like in the case of pyramids, conventional history has failed to do anything else, but to ascribe funeral purpose to dolmens. There is surely a little grain of truth in such an approach, since in some dolmens human remains have indeed been found. Quite possibly, when later generations lost the primordial knowledge, they did use dolmens in such a way – I won’t dispute this. However, there are lots of other hypotheses of the dolmen purpose, beginning with funny and amusing ones and up to those beyond understanding of present-day humanity. Let me refer to several hypotheses found on the web (perhaps, some of them are somewhat similar):
(Pardon me, I couldn’t avoid writing this down.)
- “A dolmen is a heated floor. Firewood was put through the aperture, while on top there was a little house…” Well, everything is clear with this hypothesis.
- “What were dolmens constructed for? In order to give people power and knowledge, and thus elevate them to the level of gods. When a person is sitting inside a dolmen chamber and “singing” a relevant sound, a resonance arises and the dolmen starts “singing” in unison with the person. Acoustic vibrations cause permanent compression and decompression of quartz grains (there is plenty of quartz in dolmens, as chemical analysis suggests), and consequently a piezoelectric effect arises: electric charges and an electric field emerge in the dolmen walls. This field forces the ether around move through the dolmen upwards (I participated in experiments on formation of such ethereal flows and I know what I’m talking about), and an ethereal flow emerges, carrying enormous energy. The flow gives some of its energy to the atmospheric air, arousing or even ionising separate oxygen molecules. At that, ions are powerful centres of condensation. Therefore, water drops start forming, and thunderstorm begins several hours later. Since ions mostly exist above dolmens, lightning strikes only the ion column, and the dolmen through it. Due to such shaking, the piezoelectric effect starts working to the maximum, forming a further more powerful ethereal flow. Consequently, this flow pushes a person out of his or her physical body, causing what in esotericism is called an astral projection. In such an astral state, all physical body restrictions disappear, and a person gains enormous energy and extensive knowledge.”
- “According to a suggested hypothesis, under the conditions of incessant fight for life dolmens had an enormous practical importance for primitive mankind, especially during the winter season. Dolmens were used for storing animal and vegetable food products gathered in the summertime. A dolmen aperture was intended for loading and extracting foodstuffs. It was closed with a plug. The spacing between the plug and the aperture could be regulated and let food smells outside. Food smells attracted hungry wild animals in the wintertime. High disposition of the dolmen overhead slab allowed primitive hunters to hide safely there in order to hunt an approaching animal. Thus, hunters could kill such animal from an absolutely close distance from above, by means of spears or big stones. The killed animal became an easy target for hunters. Such a hunting method and corresponding food reserves enabled live through the cold and hungry winter. Massive dolmen structures prevented animals from destruction of dolmens when there were no people around, thus making it possible to preserve foodstuffs. You should agree such practical application made dolmen construction worthwhile. Dolmens secured survival of primitive humanity.
The Black Sea origin hypothesis suggests that the sea level in winter was lower than in summer by 20 to 40 m, therefore in winter dolmens were totally on dry land and could be used for keeping food products.
An inquisitive reader may say the dolmen aperture is not big enough for a human being to come inside. A response may be as follows: the aperture was deliberately made too small to limit access of people and animals. Quite probably, a little son of a tribal chief was honoured to get inside.
Dolmens were made without spacing in order to preserve food supplies and protect them from little rodents, etc.”
- “I believe dolmens played an economic role. They were inhabited by snakes that guarded the border of a country or nation”, (which specifically is unclear).
- “Dolmens are health resorts.”
- “Dolmens represent a system of protection of a source of positive or opposite power. That is, there is an outlet of power in dolmens. Such power or energy was refracted owing to a roof slope (the angle of incidence equals to the angle of reflection), came out of the dolmen and took away a person’s illness. Furthermore, the sharper was incidence the mightier a dolmen was, whereas the angle of reflection created a certain radius of power in front of the dolmen. The dolmen front wall had a round or rectangular aperture in it, closable with an oak or stone little door.
A sick person was put into a dolmen with an outlet of negative energy, so that such energy would take away his or her entire illness. Then the person was moved to a dolmen with positive energy, since the illness had been already taken away, but the person was still weak, and the dolmen filled him or her with new mighty power. People were usually lying inside dolmens with their heads directed to the exit, and were extracted from there by the head (children were also delivered inside dolmens).”
“North and south dolmen orientations were intended for physical body recovery (diseases, injuries). “Negative” energy comes from the north and takes away one’s illness, and then a person recovers one’s energy in a south-oriented dolmen.
West and east orientations were intended for correction of the Soul or Spirit. Let’s assume merchants came to a marketplace and put the evil eye on a child. Or, for example, someone started going hysterical (this is also a psychical level, so such person was put into a relevant dolmen). Western energy takes away a disorder, while eastern energy (the rising Sun) endows new power.
* Many people think dolmens are burial vaults, because skeletons were discovered in some of them. But this is not true. Let’s assume a person was wounded in a battle, knew about the dolmen purpose and got into a dolmen, but he lacked strength to move to another dolmen, and no one was there to move him, so he remained there forever.”
- Not many people know the dolmen purpose is sacral. People who still adhere to the ancient Slavic faith believe that dolmens are intended for meditation or, to be more precise, for travelling into other worlds.
The following information also deserves attention: http://leo4752.narod.ru/. For those who lack an opportunity, time or desire to visit this website, let me cite an article by another competent person:
Dolmens of the North Caucasus represent devices for generation and emission of sounds. They are powered via a volumetric explosion inside a dolmen. Explosion energy is initially transformed into resilient vibrations of slabs, then into vibrations of the gas medium in the dolmen chamber, and finally it is emitted by the dolmen plug as acoustic waves of high intensity.
The thickness and solidity of dolmen slabs enable a dolmen to endure inner explosions. As the slabs bend they accumulate a part of explosion energy which then transforms into the energy of resilient vibrations of the slabs. At that, energy redistribution takes place between the perimeter slabs. When side slabs bend transversally, they vibrate in length through points of junction, while grooves and juts increase the amplitude of transverse vibrations of the front and rear slabs (this is like when two people are shaking out a floor mat, and if the dolmen upper slab also vibrates it is like a third person gets involved in shaking). The front and rear slabs in turn share the obtained energy with the standing wave formed between inner sides of the slabs and the sound generated by the outer sides of the slabs. Hence, the dolmen emits a sound not only forward, but partly backwards, too. Moreover, as vibrations damp, the vibrating inner surfaces of the upper and side slabs partly return the obtained energy back, causing plane acoustic waves within the dolmen space. Flat walls of the dolmen chamber favour reflection of such waves without major losses and with preservation of their shape. The upper and side slabs are slightly turned outside, therefore the wave fronts formed of the interference of initial and reflected waves are directed forward and somewhat down. When their energy meets the front slab adjusted to resonate with the waves falling onto it, it gets absorbed and directed to support transverse vibrations on the slab with maximal amplitude in the spot where the plug is. Thereafter the energy flow splits: one part of it is spent on replenishment of the standing wave, while the other one supports emission of the plug sound into the space in front of the dolmen. Transverse waves in the front slab, which have frequencies equalling to the frequency of mechanical vibrations of the plug, meet in the plug centre, merge and swing vibrations of the plug to maximum possible. This turns the plug (or rather the surface of its cap) into a major emitter of sound in the dolmen. A vibration regime between the side slabs and the standing wave gets established. The standing wave periodically returns a part of obtained energy back to the front and rear slabs where the energy is transformed into sound. This enhances the dolmen performance and adds modulations to its sounding.
Dolmen external functional elements include a portal and a plug. A portal improves sound flow direction by restricting the spread of acoustic waves sideways and upwards. A plug, being an emitter, ensures dolmen impermeability. Dolmen plugs are usually quite heavy (up to 150 kg) because they must resist explosion pressure and remain in their place. Additional sealing was ensured by means of a gasket (a well-tarred rope?), for which a groove was made around the aperture in the front slab. If there was a round ledge around the aperture, the gasket groove could be on the plug. At that, quite probably, gaskets were applied without any special grooves.
The energy carried by an acoustic wave in gas is proportional to the pressure inside gas. Thus, when they preserved pressure in the dolmen chamber for as long as possible after explosion, they achieved intensification and extension of sound generation. By increasing the area of the surface that vibrates with maximum amplitude, the wide bulging cap of the plug thus increases the sound discharge. The plug is well lapped, and so transitional losses of energy on the plug-slab contact are insignificant, whereas in false-portal dolmens there are no energy losses at all, for the cap (emitter) in such dolmens is a single whole with the front slab. Another peculiarity of the emitter in false-portal dolmens is that it has got rid of the plug function and moved to the centre of the front slab. Hence, the height of the emitter is not critical, while the height of the aperture is on the contrary crucial for the dolmen structure, since it has remained below instead of joining the emitter.
In outline, the scheme of slabs operation is shown on a fragment of a broken dolmen near the AdygoiRiver. Rows of zigzag lines, just like similar lines on butts of the side slabs, depict vibrations of the slabs. The two left rows, identical in length and periods, represent vibrations of the side slabs, equal in frequency and intensity. The right row with approximately the same period represents vibrations of the upper slab. A little horizontal row represents vibrations of the front slab, while an arrow above it represents vibrations of the dolmen plug. It looks like it works in the reversed phase with the front slab, which is quite possible because plugs are massive and have sufficient inertness to be behind vibrations of the front slab by a half-period. Probably, this whole system required adjustment. The angles of turn of the upper and side slabs had to be appropriate; vibrations of all slabs should have been identical in frequency, and also in intensity for the side slabs; the frequency of vibrations of the front slab had to coincide with the frequency of acoustic waves falling onto the slab; the distance between the front and rear slabs should have equalled to an odd number of lengths of semi-waves excited by the front and rear slabs in the dolmen chamber; and, finally, the front and rear slabs had to be parallel.
They achieved equal frequencies of vibrations of the side slabs by equalising the lengths of transverse waves excited by the side slabs in the front slab through points of junction, with the reference wave length. The reference wave size was inscribed on the front slab by means of round prominent petroglyphs.
The distance between pair petroglyphs equals to a quarter of the wave length; the width of the front slab is a multiple of a half of the wave length, while the petroglyphs themselves are inscribed at the points of wave extremes and bends. The reference wave frequency was close to the frequency of vibrations of the front slab. That is, by equalising the frequencies of the side slabs according to the reference wave, they adjusted them to resonance with the front slab. The side slabs made with a certain extra thickness were oriented at right angles to the front slab. Slabs were adjusted by turns. A state of elastic vibrations of the side slab was achieved by a blow of a heavy log butt. By chopping off thin layers of sandstone and gradually decreasing the thickness of the side slab, they achieved concurrence of the frequencies of the real and reference waves. They assessed the result tactually. A tuner stretched out his arms like Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man and put his palms on the round prominent petroglyphs inscribed on bend points of the reference wave. In case of concurrence, the points of extremes and bends of the transverse wave matched the same points of the reference wave and thus the round hieroglyphs. A lack of tactual vibrations in the tuner’s palms was indicative of the equality of the frequencies of the transverse and reference waves.
The intensities of vibrations of the side slabs were balanced by comparison of the intensity of transverse vibrations of the front slab at extreme points. For that, two other round prominent petroglyphs were used, with which the extremes of transverse waves coincided after adjustment of the frequencies. The intensity of vibrations of the inner surfaces of the side slabs was increased by adding a lens shape to the slabs on the outside with simultaneous control of the equality of intensities. If vibrations of the side slabs were excited alternately, indication of the equality was equally intensive sensations of vibration in the tuner’s palms due to alternate transverse waves in the front slab. If vibrations in the side slabs were excited simultaneously, transverse waves in the reversed phase in points where petroglyphs were inscribed, with equal intensities, compensated one another in extreme points. Then the criterion of the equality of intensities, just like in the case of adjustment of the equality of frequencies, was a lack of tactual sensations of vibration in the tuner’s palms.
Furthermore, having equal frequencies and intensities of vibrations, the side slabs served as a sort of tuning fork to which the upper slab was tuned up. Tuning meant achievement of resonance between the upper slab and the side slabs with gradual decrease of the upper slab thickness.
The angles of turn of the upper and side slabs were adjusted according to a table-shaped petroglyph. In such a way dolmen builders depicted a Chladni figure that was supposed to be on the front slab if proper angles of turn of the slabs were ensured. By turning the upper slab and the side slabs, they achieved matching of the real Chladni figure with the reference one. Control was ensured tactually, too. When nodal lines of the real Chladni figure coincided with the table-shaped petroglyph, no vibration was sensed on the petroglyph surface.
In the times when there was no checking and measuring equipment, using tactual sensations for tuning of dolmens was a good approach. The range of vibration sensations by a human being is rather broad – 1 to 10,000 hertz, therefore there is no problem with frequency, which is proved by the above image with a dolmen and a dog. If the distance between the pair petroglyphs equals, say, to 0.15 – 0.2 m (if it’s a German shepherd, the width of the coronal section of its head is 0.11 to 0.13 m), then the length of the transverse wave in the front slab is 0.6 to 0.8 m. If the speed of the wave spread in dense sandstone is about 2,000 m/sec, we get the frequencies accessible for sensation of 3,333 to 2,500 hertz (it is interesting that approximately the same range of frequencies – 2,100 to 3,100 hertz – is used in LRADs – Long Range Acoustic Devices).
There are certain difficulties with sensitivity though. Vibrations of the front slab, due to indirect excitement of those, are rather weak. Although human hands as distal parts of the body are highly sensitive, such vibrations might not be sensed by a person. Moreover, the peak tactual sensitivity to vibrations falls to a narrow range of 200 to 250 hertz, whereas dolmens have much higher frequencies. Furthermore, if the frequency decreases or increases, sensitivity drops considerably.
The insufficient sensitivity issue could have been solved in different ways: beginning with skin grinding off palms to enhance sensitivity, or application of a lubricant to improve contact between palms and the slab surface, up to taking in substances that intensified perception. It is also possible that people of the dolmen age possessed higher keenness of sensations than we do, so they had no such issue at all.
Once the upper and side slabs are adjusted and tuned, a dolmen is fully assembled and partially tuned. Vibrations of the front slab are already within tactual sensitivity and quite perceptible. The next step is to determine an aperture spot, for which vibrations of the front slab had to be visualised by means of a micronized powder. That could be dust, ashes or charcoal, i.e. something that could remain on the rough vertical sandstone surface. In spots with maximum amplitudes of vibrations of the front slab a Chladni figure was obtained in the form of concentric circles, the images of which are sometimes found on dolmen slabs and plugs. The figure centre is a spot with maximum amplitude of vibrations and thus a centre of the future aperture. The aperture was made in the vibrating slab, since in principle it’s not important what exactly vibrates – a cutting tool or the surface treated by it. In any event the punching regime is implemented, facilitating sandstone chopping when sandstone is extracted from the slab in the aperture spot. At that, the cutting tool goes along the circle contour, i.e. there is no need to draw the circle: geometry and the round aperture shape are maintained in a natural way, without the stonemason’s involvement.
After the alteration of the front slab shape and weight (preparation of the aperture and installation of the plug) resonance with the upper and side slabs was broken, but they renewed it using vibrations of the side slabs as a standard. Tuning was maintained by decreasing the front slab thickness and variation of the plug weight. If the thickness was decreased by exclusion of excess material from the outer rough surface of the slab, the material was taken away not layer by layer as on the flat inner surface, but via grooves. Chopping off sandstone, a cutting tool was moving along the slab surface like a beam of electrons on the kinescope screen, i.e. consecutively, groove by groove. Probably, such linear chopping of sandstone was due not only to the surface shape, but also to the fact that tuning was minimal and did not require major change of the front slab thickness, for it only restored the resonance already achieved in the dolmen slabs. Tuning could be ensured both tactually by petroglyphs in the points of bend of the reference wave, and by ear via attainment of the maximal power of sound.
Going by sounding of modulations, they adjusted the standing wave regime. The inner side of the vibrating front slab served as a source of flat running waves for the standing wave formation. In order to eliminate the impact of vibrations on the rear slab, they damped the rear slab by supporting it with something from the outside. The distance between the slabs was adjusted by means of the rear slab by gradual chopping of sandstone from its inner side. The rear slab was tuned by frequency based on the volume of the sound of modulations, by chopping of sandstone from the outer side. At that, the vertical position of the slabs made it easier for dolmen builders to ensure a parallel position of the slabs as one of indispensable conditions of the standing wave existence between them.
When round prominent petroglyphs were inscribed on the rear slab, tuning did not change other than in sequence because the front and rear slabs were parallel and vibrated with one and the same frequency (although in the reversed phase), i.e. it was totally up to dolmen builders with which of the slabs they started tuning. Apparently, prominent petroglyphs were used not all the time: distinctive dots and lines for dolmen tuning were inscribed instead of them with paints (supposedly, it was ochre). Probably, when builders started erecting dolmens and selected slab sizes, they were guided by the reference wave length, and so tuning of slabs did not require major works on chopping off stones. Sandstone is an abrasive rock. Thus, if after the assembly and tuning of a dolmen a vibration regime was supported in the dolmen for a certain while, then mutual lapping took place in points where the slabs touched, which ensured a tighter contact thereafter. At that, stone material that impeded harmonious interaction between the slabs was excluded, i.e. precision self-tuning took place and finally turned the slabs into a single unit – the dolmen. For larger dolmens, a more powerful source of stimulation of vibrations than a log was required. That could be a stone beam or something similar to it. Stone is heavier and thus has a greater reserve of kinetic energy. In order not to cleave the dolmen with such a ram, builders could use a damper, e.g. made of wood. The further work on completion of dolmens and bringing them into the present-day shape was undertaken by erosion and vandals (the latter were obviously very fruitful).
Delivery of slabs from stone quarries was regarded as “winter sports”. Slabs were moved on the ice of frozen lakes and rivers, and along iced winter tracks on dry land. After all, the only major difference between stones in curling and dolmen slabs was their size. It is possible that sandstone for slabs was mined even in winter. Raw wooden wedges were rammed into cracks, then water was added, while frost finished everything else.
Dolmens respond rather sensitively to deformation of their slabs. Tourists say that in the morning and in the evening some dolmens produce a sound that resembles tonal telephone dialling. If the energy of discharge of low voltages due to deformations in the slabs because of uneven solar heating is sufficient to generate sound, then sounding of a typically operating dolmen must be impressive and resemble Nightingale the Robber’s whistle. Perhaps, travellers exposed to a sudden attack by robbers would have experienced a similar association if there was an operating dolmen near the road.
Methane was used as a fuel for our “Nightingale the Robber”. It was produced via anaerobic fermentation of organics, upon which biogas exuded (55-70% of methane, 28-43% of carbon dioxide, and 0-2% of other gases). An elementary installation – a pit with manure, covered with a gas-escape nozzle – produces 0.15 to 0.3 m3 of biogas from 1 m3 of volume. However, methane is highly explosive not in its pure form, but when mixed with the air at 5 to 15% concentration, while the biggest explosion takes place at 9.5% concentration. Hence, about one tenth of methane of the dolmen volume is required. Biogas was first filled into an intermediate measuring tank (e.g. a water-skin) and then released into a dolmen.
Dolmens are structurally convenient for filling them with low-specific-weight gas. An aperture is usually located below; therefore biogas (with a relative density to air of 0.98 to 0.69) accumulates in the space above it. It cannot evaporate because there are no chinks between slabs (the slabs are tightly lapped). A relevant volume of biogas depends on a dolmen size and is sometimes indicated on the chamber walls via petroglyphs – lines and triangles. A zigzag line symbolises biogas, and along with lines of triangles at the same height is shows a biogas level relative to the upper slab. The volume above the lines visually makes up about 25% of the entire volume of the dolmen chamber, but the dolmen grows narrower upwards, so let’s take about 20%. Biogas contains 55 to 70% of methane, i.e. if 20% of a dolmen is filled with biogas there will be 12.5% of methane on average, which is within the highly explosive range of concentrations.
A triangle represents a stylised image of a “standard cubic measure” of that age, e.g. of a water-skin. By the way, at certain assumption the water-skin shape may be regarded as triangular. On slabs of a dolmen near KyafarRiver there are images of triangular figures with open and closed necks. They look even more like water-skins. The number of triangles equals to the number of such measures necessary for filling a dolmen with biogas up to the level marked with lines. By dividing the volume above the lines by the number of triangles we would get such a measure. It would be interesting to compare the outcome of such calculations for several dolmens with triangular petroglyphs. If the numbers coincide at least approximately, then such cubic measure could have indeed existed.
With methane another biogas component – carbon dioxide – got into dolmens, too. It’s an undesirable additive influencing the methane-air ratio. However, firstly there is always less carbon dioxide than methane, and secondly carbon dioxide is heavier than the air (its relative density to air is 1.53). Thus, when it descends it partially flows out of a dolmen through the front slab aperture. Hence, its impact is insignificant, which makes it possible to substitute methane for biogas.
An explosion in the dolmen chamber closed with the plug was initiated by means of a detonator – a clay sphere-shaped tank. The sphere was divided by three mutually perpendicular partitions into eight segments; moreover, there are several apertures in the sphere and partitions. Two apertures in the sphere surface join two adjacent segments with the outer space, while the segments are joined with one another by a labyrinth of other six segments, formed by means of seven apertures in the partitions. A handful of live coals was placed into one of the segments, whereas the sphere was installed with its apertures upwards on the dolmen floor, and before that methane and air had been mixed inside. The coals heated the air in the segment, while the air expanded and left the segment through the aperture in the sphere surface. Discharging formed inside the sphere. A difference in pressure was compensated by arrival of a methane-air mixture into the sphere from the dolmen space through the aperture of the second segment. The time of the mixture passage along the labyrinth of seven segments to the eighth segment with the live coals was the time of the detonator response. Once the mixture contacted the coals, the detonator exploded and initiated a volumetric explosion of the entire methane-air mixture in the dolmen. By the way, when the floor was being cleaned splinters of the detonator replenished the deposit of broken ceramics around the dolmen. A detonator-signifying petroglyph has a shape of a circle with a cross inside. Showing the detonator inner structure, artists took away a half of the sphere and depicted an open sphere in an orthogonal projection. As a matter of fact, a cross in a circle represents right-angle crossing of one of the vertical partitions with the horizontal partition inside the sphere. The cross is not whole: a horizontal beam divides the vertical line in two; therefore the partitions were not made of a single piece of clay, but rather assembled of earlier prepared workpieces.
It was convenient to use templates in order to preserve workpiece dimensions for making another detonator, since every previous detonator got destroyed when it worked. Such templates were circles composed of small holes on dolmen slabs. A particularity of such templates is that they are not laid over a drawn item like ordinary templates; on the contrary, an item was laid on them. In our case such a thin clay “flat cake” was placed on such a circle of holes and pressed with fingers. By the bending of clay over the holes, one tactually determined a contour of the future template, and then the template was more heavily pressed out of the clay foundation. When partitions are made in a sphere, seven templates are needed: a circle, two semicircles, and four quarters of a circle. Corresponding templates are available for all of them. Holes in the centre of circles are necessary for making templates and joining of workpieces. Yet, this is a perfect set of templates, while in fact one simple circle of holes is totally enough.
A detonator body was assembled of two hemispheres. The hemispheres were rolled out of clay by means of a ball-shaped device pinned on a Г-shaped handle. A relevant drawing is represented by a petroglyph inscribed on the dolmen in KyafarRiver valley (http://www.enjoy-life.ru/kav/).
Recently, a stone ball was discovered in a dolmen near Shepsi village. Although the ball has no aperture for an axis, it may well be used for rolling out detonator hemispheres. Furthermore, a year or so ago, when a dolmen on KolikhoRiver was being excavated, a stone disc was found there (27 cm in diameter and 8 mm in thickness). It looks like a decent template, though not a reverse one like a circle of holes on the dolmen plate, but an ordinary one that may be used for drawing workpieces for detonator partitions. Ready-made detonators were burnt in huge stone bowls. Finished spheres were waiting for their time in small cup-shaped hollows on dolmens or nearby stones.
On the front slab of a dolmen near Chernomorka tract, in addition to a detonator petroglyph there are three other images. Two of those depict a zigzag line, while the third one looks like a comb. As we have mentioned above, a zigzag line means methane. Indeed, if a petroglyph composed of triangle lines on a wall of the dolmen chamber means a discrete volume of methane, should we exclude horizontal sides of the triangles, i.e. open them (water-skins), we would get a zigzag line or the total volume of methane released into the dolmen. Hence, we may assume the vertical zigzag line represents methane rising upwards from the front slab aperture after it has been released into the dolmen. This line is extended by the horizontal zigzag line signifying a layer of methane accumulated under the upper slab. The third image is situated next to the two others. Perhaps, these petroglyphs were jointed into a group due to the meaning similarity, while the comb-shaped figure also bears information on the state or location of methane in the dolmen chamber. Its П-shaped contour has approximately the same dimensions (height and width) as the dolmen chamber, whereas the comb prongs basically represent the horizontal zigzag line meaning methane, heavily stretched along its amplitude. Should we squeeze it along its height in the upward direction, we would get an analogue of the horizontal zigzag line at about the same levels, both relative to each other and relative to the location of the horizontal zigzag line to the upper slab and to the upper edge of the П-shaped petroglyph. That is, the zigzag line stretched along the amplitude in the П-shaped frame means methane equally distributed throughout the dolmen chamber. The detonator petroglyph is less than the aperture in the front slab, located nearby and a little higher. This indicates that the item it depicts should be placed (lowered) into the dolmen.
Now let’s combine everything together, bearing in mind that the sequence in which petroglyphs should be read is determined by their meaning. Thus, methane cannot accumulate under the upper slab before it gets into the dolmen and rises to this slab, whereas the detonator should not be placed on the dolmen floor if methane is under the upper slab. So, methane released into the dolmen rises upwards where a layer of it will accumulate under the upper slab. At that, before the detonator is installed in the dolmen, methane should be mixed with the air throughout the dolmen chamber.
It looks like an instruction. Furthermore, the petroglyphs are linked to the dolmen elements – the aperture and the upper slab. In a similar way, lines on the walls of the dolmen chamber are important not as such, but only as levels of methane relative to the upper slab.
There is another interesting petroglyph on the overhead (upper) slab of the Dudugush-1 dolmen. In the picture below we can see a sphere (detonator) located in one of three holes on the dolmen upper slab. Judging by the sizes of the holes (0.1 m in diameter and 0.05 m in depth), the detonator lowered into the hole is shown on a scale of 1:1, and its petroglyph may be used as a template. The dolmen itself is depicted schematically on a smaller scale, as a portal. Generally speaking, the picture represents a timing layout of actions necessary to put the dolmen into operation. A small hole means a short time interval. There were no stopwatches in those times, and people counted time verbally, e.g. “a mammoth swims in Mississippi – one, a mammoth swims in Mississippi – two, ......, a mammoth swims in Mississippi – nine”, and so on. There is one hole in the detonator image and one in the dolmen image. Hence, one time interval was assigned for an action with each unit. One interval was intended for throwing live coals into a sphere segment, another one for installing the detonator into the dolmen (locations of the holes coincide with places of actions). Seven holes on the top mean the time of the detonator response, during which the plug should be inserted. Such a detailed layout of time for the preparatory operations was necessary because the beginning of sound generation had to coincide with an arbitrary event.
If we agree with the aforesaid meanings of petroglyphs, we will get the following. A dolmen was filled with methane by means of measuring tanks. At that, people knew exactly how much methane was needed and how it would behave in the dolmen chamber. A device for initiation of a methane explosion was made of clay, by templates on dolmen slabs. It was a sphere divided into eight segments by three mutually perpendicular partitions with a set of apertures. Before the operation, methane was mixed with the air in the dolmen chamber. The start of the sound generation was synchronized with a certain event.
It is possible that dolmens were erected for hunting purposes. When fur and feather appeared around, it was right the event for a dolmen to start operating. A sudden high-intensity sound could deafen or disorganise any animal which then became an easy target for hunters. Hunting never takes place near dwellings, and there are no other structures near dolmens, although dolmens might probably be the only capital buildings of those times. The lack of northern azimuths in dolmen orientations may be explained by long winters and the corresponding prevalence of northern winds. A contrary wind decreased sound intensity and thus the efficiency of dolmen operation. Moreover, a portal oriented to the north should have been regularly cleaned of snow.
A certain relation of dolmens to faults in the earth’s crust is possible because faults in mountainous areas can control relief forms convenient for migration and everyday movement of animals. Dolmen disposition in a specific locality also depended on methods of hunting and kinds of fur and feather. Dolmens situated near water sources (springs, streams, rivers) “watched” for animals coming for water. Dolmens could be located on migration ways (paths, passes) or in places of regular animal gathering (pastures, drinking spots, saline souls). Dolmens situated on uplands were possibly used for hunting birds during the periods of migration, whereas those beside water bodies were used for the same when birds came there to eat. False-portal dolmens were particularly convenient for laying ambushes, since their design let hunters operate them without being noticed by potential fur and feather. Dolmens could also be used as beaters: their sound drove animals to traps, precipitous areas or zones where an acoustic influence was exerted by a group of dolmens.
Slab dolmens with a patio inside were operated without plugs. A sound emerged when gaseous products of an explosion flew through an open aperture in the front slab. Furthermore, the dolmen chamber made its contribution as a hollow voluminous resonator. After an acoustic impulse of the explosion, emission of a low-frequency sound followed, or even of an infrasound accompanied with a flame discharge. There are dolmens that operate in this way only due to design particularities (compound dolmens). As for slab dolmens, they were used in such a way, so that an animal getting inside the patio owing to a hunter’s trick or on its own would experience at least a short-term shock of maximal intensity. The sound of explosion, the low-frequency roar against the background of a residual dolmen noise (there is no plug, but there are still slabs!), plus a jet of gas under the pressure of 7-8 atmospheres at a temperature of up to 2000 degrees Celsius, and all that in a closed space, caused a stress for any wild animal and was fatal for it.
In order for an animal not to destroy the patio it was assembled of massive blocks. The thickness of patio walls in the above image even exceeds the thickness of slabs in the adjacent large dolmen. Probably, this pair was intended for hunting very big and even giant animals. At the very last moment before an animal got into the patio, a hunter who launched the dolmen abandoned it via vertically arranged ledges on the blocks next to the portal, using those as stairs. The rest of ledges, being unsuitable as stairs, could have served as pivots for hunters’ hands and feet when a carcass was cut (if it was too heavy it was cut right in the patio).
Well, everything could have been simpler though. The dolmen-patio pair might have been not a hunting trap at all, but rather a signal device. Mighty low-frequency sound vibrations directed by the patio upwards were spreading around at long distances and could be heard by all members of the tribe, no matter how far they stayed. This could be even a whole signal system, not visual as a chain of fires, but acoustic. It could have worked without any direct sighting of the signal source, and so it did not depend on relief and weather.
When cattle breeding and farming superseded hunting, dolmens became needless. For as long as there was still ancient knowledge, some of them continued to be used, but mostly not according to the intended purpose. Certainly, the priestly class paid attention to such miracles in stone as well. Patios were turned into dromoses (resonators). Mounds were built over dolmens in order to hide the fact there was no deity inside, but an ordinary dolmen like many similar ones around. Taking into account the sonic and visual effects of dolmen operation, it is easy to guess which being was settled by human imagination into a cave under such a mound. At that, when navigation and the first pirates emerged, they began to use coastal dolmens to decoy curious sailors to the dry land with corresponding negative consequences for those.
Dolmens are stationary devices, but when the chamber made of stone slabs was replaced with a thick-walled ceramic vessel, and the portal was replaced with an attached megaphone, a dolmen was thus transformed into a movable source of sound which, for instance, could be used in sieges in order to spread panic, fear and despondency among the beleaguered.
Special dolmen sounding could have also been used in meditative practices. Perhaps, Hindu dolmens served as acoustic simulators and helped yogis to perceive transcendental vibrations of the sacral OM sound with their entire heart and soul (to tell the truth, the petroglyph shown on the right is not from India, but from France, and it is inverted).
The third life was given to dolmens by the tribes that found durable and leak-proof dolmen chambers suitable for burials. They turned dolmens into tombs, knowing neither what dolmens were nor how to use them. Yet, nothing vanishes utterly, and the “labour biography” of dolmens has eventually found its reflection in verbal legends of ancient peoples of the world. Quite likely, the mythical sirens and dragons came from such legends, too, and reached our times via later myths and folk tales of other peoples who had no relation to dolmens at all.
P.S. The volumetric explosion idea could be verified on any well-preserved dolmen. In order not to damage the megalith, the explosion power should be ten or better a hundred times less than the nominal power. If a dolmen responds to uneven heating by the sun, it should respond to such exposure as well.
A Roman dodecahedron is a device that helped to preserve coaxiality of tube knives when they were used for cutting cylinders of a plastic material (perhaps, clay), with apertures along their axis of rotation, or simply speaking the plugs.
Via its juts a dodecahedron was pressed into a clay workpiece until its lower face touched the workpiece surface, thus the dodecahedron was solidly fixed in the workpiece. Then a tube knife was inserted into an aperture in the upper face. The knife had a sharpened lower edge and the outer diameter equalling to the diameter of the apertures on the upper and lower faces. The apertures served as a rail for the tube knife, letting its axis neither bend nor shift from a given direction. Via a rotatory movement the knife was embedded into a clay workpiece, thus it formed an aperture for the plug and at the same time, when it was pulled out of the workpiece, it removed a column of clay from the aperture. Thereafter the dodecahedron was separated from the workpiece in order to be put back later on, but via the face with an aperture of a larger diameter equalling to the diameter of the future plug. The holes squeezed out in the workpiece by the dodecahedron juts made it possible to insert it right in the same place. Therefore, the axis of the second larger knife having a diameter equalling to the diameters of the apertures in another couple of faces matched the axis of the aperture cut in clay. Hence, the plug which was pulled out of the body of the second knife when the work was completed had walls of an identical thickness.
Then a lock of human hair was reeled on the plug, and a heated metal rod was inserted into the aperture. Once thermal treatment was completed, the lock assumed and preserved its new shape, i.e. clay plugs represent hair rollers. They have an appropriate range of dimensions, beginning with small curls and up to big ones, and they are symmetrical, which ensures even heating. Clay hair rollers have indeed been found, but none of them are even cylindrical plugs. Perhaps, such items have not been discovered yet because Roman dodecahedra are rare, but maybe there are no items like this at all. Curling could have been done by means of damp clay rollers that collapsed once being removed after curling, i.e. were disposable. Why damp clay? Because it has better heat conductivity and higher thermal capacity than those of burnt porous clay, therefore hair rollers made of damp clay could be heated faster and kept heat longer, being more efficient. Moreover, the quality of curling could be positively influenced by the clay mineral composition as well as the content of organic and other inclusions. Hair rollers could have been multilayer. A clay plug was pressed into an aperture in a wax workpiece, which aperture was cut out with a knife of the same diameter as that of the plug, and then the finished double-layer plug was cut out of wax with a knife of a larger diameter. Aromatic resins or other substances were added to the wax to improve the quality of curling and the hair look. It’s an issue however how rollers were removed after curling, but this is not crucial because everyone knows beauty requires sacrifice.
Since hair was curled on rollers made of damp clay, they had to be made simultaneously, once necessary. A dodecahedron facilitated such a synchronous work and simplified it, saving time and replacing several tools at once. The principle was “many in one”, e.g. as embodied in the design of present-day wrenches. In the Roman dodecahedron this principle is implemented even in a more optimal way than in wrenches, since, having only six pairs of guiding apertures, the dodecahedron makes it possible to make plugs of fifteen dimension types.
The choice of bronze (not wood, for instance) for making dodecahedra is explained by frequent contacts with damp clay, whereas wood would have quickly cracked. Furthermore, such a thin-walled item made of wood would have hardly endured high power loads it was exposed to. Ceramics was not suitable either: although it is water-resistant and quite hard, it is too fragile, and a ceramic dodecahedron would be serving its owner only until the first drop on the stone floor. Thus, bronze was perfect because it is both water-resistant and durable. However, it does have a shortcoming – a rather high price of bronze plus the cost of production (casting by the template). Perhaps, this was the reason why the Roman dodecahedron did not become widespread. Most hairdressers used something cheaper though less convenient or did not practice such a way of curling at all.
At all times women were more concerned with hairdos than men. Hence, naturally hair curling was mostly a female occupation. Moreover, the Roman dodecahedron is an elegant and delicate item resembling an adornment, and if it’s tool it is rather intended for female hands. This may be evidenced by the Roman dodecahedra found in female tombs. They were placed in the tombs of female hairdressers as the most precious tools for them, just like swords for warriors, so the dodecahedron was a weapon of the female beauty arsenal rather than of the male armoury. Hence, dodecahedra discovered in the places of Roman military settlements could be considered in the same way as hairdresser tools. Such settlements were outposts of the Roman civilization in the occupied lands. They were economically self-sufficient and had relatively high living standards (military men have always earned decent living), therefore local fashion-conscious women could totally afford hairdos like ladies in the empire.
An alternative version: the dodecahedron was adopted by military hairdressers (if there were any; though somebody certainly engaged in cutting hair of legionaries, centurions and legates). Why would one carry around hair rollers that break and get lost, when they could be made as necessary? Clay plugs cut out by means of the Roman dodecahedron represent perfect roller workpieces – they should only be rolled out a little and burnt.
The currently known area of dodecahedra spread in the Roman Empire is probably far from being final. As new finds will emerge it will change or may totally disappear. But if such area indeed existed, its border could coincide with the border of fashion on curly hair. Probably, across the border there lived people with natural curly hair, so it would be totally inappropriate to bring them a device for making hair rollers.
The Roman dodecahedron (2-3 centuries AD) may owe its short life to the final establishment of Christianity as state religion in the 4th century. Under the influence of this religion, fashion in Ancient Rome became more ascetic. Exclusive hairdos with technically complex curling turned unclaimed, therefore dodecahedra became unnecessary and were soon forgotten.
Another big issue and major drawback is the lack of tube knives found. In principle, such knives are supposed to be discovered next to dodecahedra. At that, should we leave aside hairdressers and rollers, a set of six pairs of large rail runners of various diameters with possible precise matching of their axes upon recurrent installation on a marking surface could be regarded as one of the Roman dodecahedron functional purposes.
At that, an icosahedron could be a tool intended for performing simple arithmetical operations – addition and subtraction. I don’t want to deprive you of the pleasure to guess how icosahedra could be used, so please think on your own.
Seyds of the Kola Peninsula: elementary geophones?
When a seismic wave arrived, seyd blocks as megaliths in the state of stable equilibrium began to swing, while small seyds (delicate pillars and pyramids) started clattering not too noisily like a pile of tableware in a cupboard when the latter is easily shaken. Nowadays they have lost such a capability due to erosion. Over thousands of years, granite in the areas of mechanical loads (pivots) has been going to ruin, and seyds have assumed a stable position not allowing them to move in any way.
Granitoids of the Kola Peninsula are represented by various types of intrusions. These are structures with a considerable formation depth, consisting of granite – a dense monolithic crystalline rock that turns them into good channels for admission of seismic waves from the depth to the earth’s surface. Moreover, granite is one of the most widespread rocks in the peninsula, no wonder that seyds were placed on granite outcrops. Granite is also a good construction material, since its solidity guarantees long life and efficiency of seyds.
Seyds placement near faults in the earth’s crust may be explained by the fact that faults can respond to passage of seismic waves with slight vibration of their wings, which intensified vibrations of the seyds and increased their sensitivity as geophones.
Seyds were created by the tribes engaged in fishery and hunting of sea animals. Those tribes were concerned about the seismic situation for the same simple reason the Japanese are concerned about it today (tsunamis). Due to sea fishery they had to settle on the coast, and seyds forewarned them about earthquakes in the sea; thus they had time to abandon the dangerous shore in advance. It is not unusual that in the past there could be earthquakes and tsunamis in the Barents and NorwegianSeas. The Scandinavian Peninsula is located in a tectonically active zone and over the last 10,000 years has risen to more than 100 meters above sea level. Even nowadays it can shake from time to time. Thus, on 25 May 2012 there was an earthquake in the Norwegian Sea with a magnitude of 6.2, and on 15 August 2013 there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0. By the way, quite likely the rise of the earth’s crust has changed the incline of the surface on which seyds stand, which along with erosion has influenced the efficiency of seyd megaliths, for this has disturbed their stable balance.
It is difficult to say whether our ancestors correlated undersea earthquakes with tsunamis, and even whether they were aware of earthquakes on the seabed at all. In such case, where did people in those archaic times get such an original idea? Well, they simply spotted it in nature! Glaciers brought numerous boulders to the Kola Peninsula and left them on its surface including granite outcrops. There are also many coombs formed as a result of outcrops of granite and other rocks. Being very observant, hunters and fishermen could not disregard swaying of large blocks and the sounds that started a little while before the approach of an unusually high wave to the shore. Such stone phenomena were not always available near their settlements, so it was natural for them to arrive at an idea of drawing a Prophetic Stone closer to their habitation. Later on, instead of moving heavy blocks at long distances, they switched to creation of artificial analogues of seyds in the places where a proper material was available. Thereafter, having gained relevant experience, they started updating the design of such structures. Seyd sounding was reproduced in stone pillars and pyramids, whereas blocks the shape of which did not make it possible to ensure a state of stable balance began to be placed on smaller stones with the achievement of a needed effect.
Seyds were built as close to dwellings as possible, so that they would be permanently in full view of local inhabitants. This explains the presence of water sources or water bodies near seyds. After all, humanity always endeavours to settle near the water, and the creators of seyds were not an exception.
VERSION 1: Dolmens represent a part of a unified planetary structure that includes other megaliths and Egyptian pyramids as well. The places where dolmens are situated were chosen not by mere chance. Dolmens are a sort of conductors connecting the earth with the information grid responsible for the development of human civilization on Earth.
VERSION 2: There is a version that has recently become popular, according to which living people retreated to dolmens to die. They understood it was necessary to preserve connection with the human sources, so they stayed in dolmens and meditated in the dark and silence. This version suggests that dolmens are over ten thousand years old. Radiation beside them is much lower than the background radiation, as if remaining from a different age.
VERSION 3: A number of peoples used tombs for burials. Before burying someone in a dolmen or retreating there to die they removed remains of dead bodies from there, therefore it is almost impossible to find a dolmen with intact earlier remains. Certainly, not all the deceased were buried in dolmens. In those times people were also buried in earth pits or simpler tombs, while in dolmens noble members of the society were buried with relevant special rites performed.
VERSION 4: It is believed that the idea of dolmen construction came to the Western Caucasus from the Mediterranean. Maybe, the dolmen construction idea was accepted by local tribes and got a favourable ground here right at the time when the pyramids were erected in Egypt.
Science believes dolmens can generate low-frequency vibrations that influence human beings, and not just generate, but also radiate them as directed rays. Apertures in dolmens were closed with special plugs resembling ultrasonic emitters by their shape. Such emitters, mostly represented by special ceramic plates, are used in modern engineering for focusing ultrasonic flows. In dolmens, a major role could have been played by a composition of the rock of which the plug was made as well as the configuration of its surface. The scope of dolmen application depended on tuning to one or another frequency. A dolmen placed in a strategically important zone and tuned to a relevant frequency prevented enemies from penetrating into such zone, causing even loss of consciousness or death.
VERSION 5: Dolmens were used for psychogenic influence over human beings. Having tuned a dolmen to a certain frequency, it was possible to drive a person into a special state of trace in which he or she started uttering prophecies (as shamans do).
VERSION 6: Another opinion suggests that dolmens were used for technological purposes, e.g. ultrasonic welding of jewels. There are a number of Celtic jewels made with application of an unknown technology by which small elements were fastened to the base and which resembles high-frequency or ultrasonic welding.
The oldest dolmens are dated to the 8th millennium BC.
- Dolmen orientation (the vector from the rear slab towards the front slab) varies, but usually it fits into the sunrise-sunset arc and the northeast-south-northwest culminations of celestial bodies. Only separate monuments are oriented to the north. Observations on certain monuments (Psynako-1 complex, a dolmen with a kromlekh in the Wolf’s Gate dolmen group, the Mamedov Crack dolmen with a sighting device) have shown that the monuments mark sunrise and sunset points on the days of solstices and equinoxes (Mikhail Kudin. Dolmens and Ritual, Sochi Local Ethnographer, Issue 4. Sochi, 1999). Such observations may represent an indirect corroboration of an assumption that dolmen builders adhered to a solar cult.
1. Cult structures for burying tribal chiefs
This is a major hypothesis supported by mainstream historians and archaeologists. When they fail to explain the purpose of a certain object they always say it’s a cult structure or a tomb. This hypothesis neither provides answers to most of the questions asked in this article, nor explains the riddles of dolmen proportions, plug dimensions, the cylindrical lens, the portal, as well as dolmen orientations and locations. Here is a word-for-word statement by V.I. Markovin in his article in the Soviet Archaeology journal (1973):
Many opinions have been suggested as to the origin of Caucasian dolmens. Now, when dolmens have been studied to a certain degree not only in Abkhazia, but in Krasnodar Krai as well, we can say that the more we know about these structures the less clear becomes the issue of the origin of the West Caucasian dolmen culture.
Attempts to draw certain conclusions based on archaeological finds discovered inside dolmens are hardly promising either, for plenty of stuff has accumulated in dolmens over thousands of years. Perhaps, the main point about the finds is that those are mostly numerous items of the Stone Age, which confirms the existence but not the construction of dolmens during that age – they could have been erected earlier. Bronze items have been taken into consideration, too, whereas iron, glass items and cartridges found in dolmens have been neglected by archaeologists. Vessels discovered inside dolmens are very interesting as well. They are quite extraordinary, being even called the “dolmen vessels”, and we will speak about them later on. Dolmens were left from the previous civilization just like many other megalithic structures, and were used by our civilization for various purposes including burying (it is quite logical to use solid stone structures built by someone many centuries before for one’s own current purposes).
Here’s another statement by a famous authoritative researcher (Sh. D. Inal-Ipa) [V.I. Markovin. Dolmens of the Western Caucasus, 1978]:
As we can see, the dolmen culture has no genetic roots among the antiquities of Prikuban and the Black Sea region. There was no earlier protracted development of a local culture in the Western Caucasus which could have caused the emergence of dolmens, even if we try to connect the stone industry by an uninterrupted line of evolution from the Palaeolithic to the Bronze Age.
Thus, just like in the case of pyramids, there was no one who could build dolmens in the times of our civilization. So, nowadays we should only summon up the courage and admit the existence of an earlier advanced civilization, but this is so hard for the authoritarian science. Moreover, let me mention that remains of people, sometimes dogs, horses and pigs were placed in dolmens, and such remains were partial (not whole skeletons), often splintered and numerous in one dolmen (up to 30 or more people). This resembles RELICS more than ordinary tombs, and quite possibly one person’s relics were distributed among many dolmens (archaeologists have failed to verify this). At that, some skeletons with little jugs beside them provoke particular amazement. A notion arises that living people entered dolmens and sacrificed themselves by taking poison. Relics are a genetic material that contains DNA molecules. This material was put into a dolmen, while the latter allowed amplify the biological filed signal associated with the DNA. A vital biological field is a complex and extensive topic which is impossible to be explained in this article. Information for biological lives comes from a unified structural centre (information field) and is physically contained in sounds. Dolmens are exactly the structures that intensify such sounds.
2. Houses of dwarfs [V.I. Markovin, Ispun: Houses of Dwarfs //: Notes about Dolmens of the Western Caucasus. Krasnodar]
This is a nice hypothesis which, as distinct from the first one, contains certain answers to the questions asked.
a house is supposed to be locked on the inside, not the outside
such dwelling is obviously uncomfortable and more resembles a prison
3. Storehouses for keeping hunters’ trophies
Not a bad hypothesis. Hunters hid their trophies from wild animals.
Dolmens are regarded as places where people got recharged with vital energy. The hypothesis is nice, although vital energy is not a physical concept today. Hence, the hypothesis is unscientific although it is worth being considered.
physical principles are unknown
5. Tectonic resonators
Dolmens stand on tectonic faults, preventing earthquakes and tectonic disasters. This is an interesting hypothesis that may explain a lot.
physical principles are unknown
many dolmens don’t stand on tectonic faults
6. Ultrasonic devices
In 1980s, at the Rollright Stones megalithic complex (the UK) Don Robinson detected ultrasound radiations coming from a kromlekh, a menhir and a dolmen at sunrise [Fiebag P. Steizeit sender von Rollride// Fncient Skies 1980 N 11]. Robinson and his colleagues associated this with radiation of quartz crystals contained in sandstone of which dolmens are made. They believed quartz radiated a faint ultrasonic field due to blows of solar radiation.
Based on this fact, in 1992 geologist R.S. Furdui and physicist Yu.M. Swaydak suggested a hypothesis that dolmens were acoustic devices [G.E. Burgansky, R.S. Furdui. RIDDLES OF THE ANTIQUITY: Blank Spots in the History of Civilization // Kiev, 1988]. Furdui and Swaydak assumed the ultrasound radiated by dolmens was modulated by a low-frequency acoustic wave. They estimated resonances of dolmen chambers by the Hemholtz resonance formula and got the resonance frequency of 16-35 hertz. Moreover, they suggested an assumption that ultrasound could be used for influencing human organism. Although Furdui and Swaydak did not develop their hypothesis, they showed a very promising trend of megalith studies. Perhaps, the main thing is that they mentioned low-frequency (infrasonic) waves as those capable of affecting human beings. Dolmen ultrasonic radiation is a weakness of their hypothesis, since dolmen dimensions do not fit ultrasonic technology.
An ultrasonic wave is reflected from any surface and hardly penetrates dense media without tight lapping of the emitter. In the air medium it is reflected from nearly all objects and can serve as eyesight for bats. Its radius of action is limited due to intense absorption by the medium. Furthermore, there is another inaccuracy: a dolmen chamber is not a Hemholtz resonator. The researchers have failed to indicate that infrasound represents a perfect wave for building energy wave systems. Generally speaking, they failed to develop their hypothesis, and it has remained just a bright outbreak among other dolmen hypotheses.
This hypothesis even lacks professional analysis and criticism. An attempt of Yuri Sharikov [Yu.I. Sharikov, O.N. Komissar. Ancient Technology of Caucasian Dolmens // - Krasnodar, 2008] to criticise it at the level of high school physics and Wikipedia evokes nothing but a smile. Thus, if you have only child’s understanding of generators and resonators it is better not to discuss them at all. According to my personal professional experience in making quartz generators, they tend to “give a start” when light contacts them. Upon any energy exposure (knock, sound, light, electricity, temperature) the quartz element of the resonators emits an electromagnetic wave and an ultrasonic wave. However, dolmens may hardly be called electromagnetic or ultrasonic devices, since these radiations are too low unless some special design solutions are applied, which is not the case with dolmens.
dolmen dimensions do not correspond to ultrasonic technology
7. Infrasonic (sonic) resonant receivers of wave energy
This hypothesis is based on the SHIROCO infrasonic broadcasting interface hypothesis. Dolmens were supposedly used for receiving wave sonic energy of the Earth. Their purpose is to create low-frequency genetically modulated sound fields. This energy may be used in different ways as described in SHIROKO hypothesis, beginning with information transfer at long distances and up to synchronisation of rational life. A separate issue though is how these fields influence biological life and modification thereof. This hypothesis provides a very simple explanation to many dolmen riddles from the physical standpoint.
8. Dolmens as synchronous resonators of underground infrasonic waves
Let me give more details on this one. Major scientific data on the infrasonic broadcasting interface is expounded in the aforesaid SHIROKO hypothesis. It would be useful to know more about the interface to gain better understanding of the energy wave infrasonic system in ancient times. In a nutshell, according to this hypothesis, in the age of pyramids on the Earth an infrasonic energy system used to function. The system included all megalithic structures, hundreds of thousands of which are found on our planet. Only on Sardinia archaeologists know not less than 70,000 nuraghs (structures larger than dolmens in size). The said system used natural sources of infrasonic energy such as rivers, mountains, faults, seacoasts, etc. Moreover, pyramids as artificial generators of infrasonic energy were created. Pyramids could generate infrasonic energy of wind. When there was wind of 10 m/sec, it was possible to collect up to 127 W of infrasonic power on average from 1 square m of a pyramid cross section. For instance, the Great Pyramid of Giza (Pyramid of Cheops) could generate up to 2 MW of power at such a wind speed. Hence, pyramidal structures can generate enormous sonic power. In addition to generators, the aforesaid energy system consisted of numerous infrasonic receivers, e.g. mastabas, underground cupola tombs, nuraghs, tumuli, dolmens, and other stone structures. Such receivers could receive infrasonic energy from the ground owing to their resonance qualities and durability.
8.1. Infrasonic wave energy
An infrasonic wave of 0.001...16 hertz (8...16 hertz according to my octave determination) is easily transferred through ground and water. It’s a perfect wave for creating energy systems. For example, our 50-hertz electrical energy system operates at low frequencies. The lower the frequency is the farther variable power may be transferred with lesser losses. Let me note there is no difference in the principle of energy transfer between an electromagnetic wave and a sound wave. All these are vibrations of particles in the material world, though in the first case electrons and in the second case atoms and molecules vibrate. Many animals actively use infrasound for communication. Thus, blue whales can communicate by means of infrasound at a distance of up to 1300 km [Ana Sirovic, John Hilderbrand. Blue and Fin Whale Call Source Levels and PropagationRange in the Southern Ocean. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122(2):1208-1215 (2007)] Infrasonic waves easily penetrate through ground and water, therefore this kind of energy may be received underground and at any ocean depth.
8.2. Dolmens as resonant receivers of infrasonic wave energy
The design and proportionality of dolmens suggest they are acoustic devices. You might know that, having certain dimensions, material objects can resonate, i.e. they turn into resonant receivers of sonic (mechanical) energy. For example, a stone placed on rigid supports can vibrate at low frequencies very well.
Say, by lifting a seyd a little the conditions of sound emission may be improved. Furthermore, reception / emission of sound may be enhanced if a voluminous resonator is added to the device as it is done in musical tuning forks.
This is already a sound unit that includes a rod resonator (tuning fork), a voluminous resonator (wooden box), and a matching device (thickened cylinder). A resonator matching device is an obligatory element for connecting the two resonators. The flows of energy going from the tuning fork to the voluminous resonator must be harmonised, otherwise energy is reflected on the junction, and the device fails. It is easy to estimate the resonators, whereas the matching device already represents the art of engineering. A dolmen stone box is certainly an air half-wave (closed) resonator. The internal walls of such a resonator must be flat and grinded so that the sound would be well reflected as we can observe in all dolmens. As for the outer walls, there is no need to grind those. In dolmens we see the builders’ pragmatism, thus these are technological structures rather than religious, while in cult structures outer walls are grinded because many people see them.
Above I have written that the overhead (upper) slab of a dolmen is too big for a house. This slab is exactly the resonating stone placed on an air resonator. Gauls even call this particular stone a dolmin. Hence, dolmens are acoustic devices that require engineering design. As we know, dolmens also have other enigmatic structural elements: a portal, a front lens-shaped slab, a hemispherical plug, and an elevation.
Many points become understandable if we have a look at the head of a modern phonendoscope. A dolmen resembles a phonendoscope a great deal, though unlike the latter a dolmen has a portal lens (front slab) and a plug. Hence, a dolmen can project sound in front of its portal, since its lens has a focal length. A dolmen somewhat reminds of a slide projector which projects light on a screen along with information modulated in the light.
A dolmen projects sound with superimposed genetic information. The sound is focused onto a vertical sound column placed on a flat ground in front of the dolmen. It’s exactly a vertical column because the lens of the portal slab is cylindrical, not spherical, and its focus is not a point but a line. This is the spot where a person should stand in order to receive energy from the dolmen. Sometimes a menhir or a pillar was placed on this spot to ensure spreading of the energy in the horizontal plane, which allowed increasing the number of people who worked with the dolmen. In such cases, a round patio was often arranged of walls in order not to lose energy in the surrounding space. However, we should bear in mind that major impact is done by the information superimposed on wave energy. The information may be either positive or negative, just like in a TV set or a slide projector. A dolmen differs from a TV set by the fact that it transfers information to our cells and our subconscious.
A dolmen stands on an elevation that forms a focused lens. Having a rather big size, this focused ground lens accumulates plenty of sound energy from the Earth. The focused lens height is determined by the height of the watershed of two rivers. The focused lens width is determined by the distance between the rivers that divide the elevation. There can be tens or hundreds of metres of height and several kilometres of width.
Images below schematically depict dolmen positioning on a focusing elevation. The elevations on the images are considerably decreased for better representation of their work. In a real place you might fail to notice the elevation due to its enormous dimensions. It may look as a mere glade, but it’s a watershed glade in fact. A dolmen may stand on a watershed or on an elevation slope. Its position determines its design – whether it takes sound from above or from the side of the ground lens.
Moreover, just like all other megalithic structures, for their operation dolmens used the D octave energy (vibration produced by rivers and stones). Thus, any dolmen must be connected with a river or other waterbody and always faces it. A waterbody creates the main infrasonic field for a dolmen. The D energy gives life on the Earth. It is formed owing to the water cycle in nature, which cycle emerges from the RA solar flow. More details about the cycle of B (Si) and D (Re) octave energies (the water cycle) may be found in SHIROKO hypothesis. For voluminous focusing devices (lenses) hardness of a material is not important, but what matters is its transparency for sound and its shape. Hardness is important only for reflecting elements, e.g. walls of the inner chamber.
Dolmen builders skilfully applied natural elements and energy sources, combining natural and artificial elements in one and the same acoustic device. Their devices did not require fuel and could function for millennia. The current civilization has failed to create anything like this so far. Everything we make is temporary and fuel-consuming. Ancient dolmen builders would probably regard us as savages.
8.2.1. The portal and the hemispheric plug
Let us clarify the work of the front lens-shaped slab, the portal and the hemispheric plug.
Here you can see a rectangular portal that focuses energy in a given direction and a plug that emits sound. It could not have been presented more clearly.
Let me add a little. I have just recalled a legend how Archimedes burned down the enemy fleet by means of shields. You should agree there is a certain pattern. If we assume that light waves were used instead of acoustic waves, then by focusing them into a single big wave we get a laser prototype.
If you think a loudspeaker was invented recently, you are mistaken, for it was actively used before Christ as well. An ancient loudspeaker represented a plate (basin) with a central salience like those of the Etruscans and found on walls of palaces and cathedrals (rosettes). The plate surface was grooved, thus the range of frequencies was extended for retransformation of low-frequency sounds. That is, every salience and curvilinearity on the surface could resonate at its frequency, considerably extending the general range of the plate vibrations. People often held such loudspeakers in hands, lying on stone sarcophagi. Such manual loudspeaker converted the sarcophagus sound.
Archaeologists call these plates phials, and since they don’t know their purpose they call them sacrificial. I have called such an item a portal plate, since it works in a similar way as a dolmen portal and a loudspeaker portal.
Here are other images of portal plates and sarcophagi: 01, 02, 03, 04. Phials have been found in various countries and are often made of precious metals.
Here are more photos of phials: a Greek one, a Roman marine one, a Bulgarian one, an Ural cast one, and one from the Semibratni Mound. Phials were found in the North Caucasus, too. Thus, in 1888 Ye.D. Felitsyn excavated Karagodeuashkh mound not far from Krymsk and discovered an ancient phial that was transferred to the HermitageMuseum. There is the phial image and description provided in 1892 by V. Malmberg [67, p. 152-153]. It’s worth noting where the phial is kept. It is kept in a certain place, and a person is lying on a sarcophagus with relics. What are those people up to? Judging by their solemn faces, they are about to make posterity, i.e. by means of sound they tune their cells to the DNA of the relics. They obviously want to get healthy posterity with a good DNA.
This explains how a dolmen works:
1. It contains relics (a DNA material), most often extremities and splintered bones, mixed in clay.
2. A dolmen accumulates plenty of sound energy from the Earth owing to a ground elevation.
3. A river flows nearby and hits stones, creating the wave energy of life (let’s call it so).
4. Stones under the dolmen resonate, discharging the said energy, while the stone air resonator amplifies it.
5. The portal of the stone air resonator focuses the wave energy in a column on a flat ground in front of the dolmen.
6. If the signal should be amplified or made generally accessible, a menhir or a pillar (rod resonator) is placed in the focus point.
7. To prevent the useful energy from vanishing in space, a dolmen may be enclosed by a bank or a circle of menhirs (kromlekh).
What does a dolmen do?
As I have already mentioned above, structural information that supports development and existence of life is contained in sounds. It is supplied from a single centre of the information field of life, which centre is probably situated inside the Earth. Such information is transferred in shots; it is externally synchronised and correlated via the two DNA keys. All similar biological lives are in continuous interaction with each other. Dolmens make it possible to amplify signals related to the DNA code of relics kept in them.
Hence, two opportunities emerge:
1. To change the DNA structure of an organism if it coincides with the DNA of the relics put in a dolmen.
2. To restore damaged DNA for kindred biological organisms with identical DNA.
This was genetic engineering of the ancients, and its simplicity strikes our present-day imagination.
Yet, let me note all this does not contradict 20th century physics and wave energetics. As a matter of fact, a dolmen represents a regulated resonant receiver intended for getting infrasonic energy. It has a handle (plug). By pushing it inside we increase the frequency of the stone box resonance owing to the decrease of the chamber volume, whereas if we move the plug out we decrease the frequency of the resonant box. By means of such a handle ancient people simply tuned dolmens to a needed wave frequency. Once a dolmen was tuned with the help of such a plug, they made a stationary plug of a needed length and tightly wedged it. This explains why plugs in different dolmens have difference lengths. Moreover, owing to its shape the plug plays a role of a portal emitter.
The resonant frequency of dolmens is within the range of 50 to 200 hertz. It is determined by the linear dimensions of a dolmen chamber and calculated by the formula of an air resonator with parallel walls: F=V/2/D, where F is the frequency in hertz, V is the velocity of sound in m/sec, and D is the distance between the walls in metres. To ensure operation in the infrasonic range, a dolmen must use a binaural frequency that arises when two close frequencies F1 and F2 are combined in a single resonant volume. A given binaural frequency equals to the difference between the two resonant frequencies of the dolmen: F=F1–F2. Therefore, the dolmen shape is arranged for two resonant frequencies, usually a parallelepiped with a certain ratio of its sides. Two major resonances are needed to receive infrasound. By means of sound marks (zigzags and spirals) they tune the acoustic path of sound and achieve a needed proportion. Thereafter, by means of a dolmen plug, a relevant binaural frequency may be obtained as I have demonstrated in an acoustic experiment with a dolmen model. Hence, dolmens may be tuned to very low binaural frequencies.
Now, let’s talk about dolmen vessels as I have promised. Such vessels as sound resonators are applied in all megalithic structures. More than 30,000 clay vessels have been discovered under the foundation of some pyramids. The Etruscans used brilliant original sound vessels in their tumuli.
A sound vessel of the Etruscans (DO YOU LIKE THIS VESSEL? Doesn’t it resemble anything? link)
Such vessels found in Egyptian mastabas are called canopi. Dolmens also have their set of typical vessels. First of all, these are big voluminous vessels with grooved inner surface. That is, a vessel was covered with triangular or round grooves inside, located in zigzags. It was senseless to use such a vessel for keeping food, since it’s almost impossible to clean it on the inside. Furthermore, the walls of such vessels are unusually thin and fragile, therefore no intact vessels of this kind have been found in dolmens. On the outside the vessels were also covered with a zigzag relief. The purpose of such reliefs was to decrease resonant frequencies of a vessel and extend its sound range. Hence, smaller vessels started sounding like big ones and had a wide sound range. Vessels are excellent resonators of sound and their purpose, just like that of phials, is to amplify the dolmen NOISE.
(At this point I have recalled Elena’s comment to the article dedicated to establishment of a unified pyramid database: https://rgdn.info/piramidy._sbor_informacii._sozdanie_obschey_bazy. The comment was about a strange skull, and it was given at the stage of considering the idea of a dolmen article. Here it is: “In June 2013, my friends and I went to ADYGEI in order to visit LAGO NAKI. It’s a place in the mountains with dolmens and a cave. On the way to Lago Naki there is a private museum where the owner has collected numerous archaeological finds. He showed us a skull recently found by his children in the mountains (photos are available on the web). Unfortunately, we fail to retrieve our own photo of this find. That man waited for researchers to come and study the skull... On the web I’ve read the researchers assumed it’s a sheep skull... To tell the truth, the one we saw was different. It was perfectly polished, the eyeholes were very distinct... and there was a concave shape on the rear of the skull... That is, we all thought: where was the brain hidden in fact?” When I was reading this comment, at the subconscious level it seemed to me the skull had been used as an amplifier. At that time I knew nothing about the clever guys with their conclusions. Yet, let us move further...)
In order to enhance the sonority of vessels ancient people added calcite crystals, seashells or granite, i.e. very hard resonant particles, into clay. The role of such vessels in all structures was to increase the level of sound of a stone air resonator. Those were a sort of sound amplifiers that operated in a wide frequency range.
The second type of vessels has nothing to do with sound. These are small vessels about 5 cm in size, looking like little bottles, cups, pots, and so on. They are associated with the dolmen animation ritual. This ritual presupposed that, once a dolmen was erected, a soul or relics (DNA) had to be placed in it.
Worthy, healthy, pious people entered a new dolmen and ended their life there. Their goal was to give their soul to the dolmen for many ages in order to render long and all-embracing support to their offspring. I believe such support was mostly associated with the capacity of dolmens to restore the DNA code of human cells. Therefore, in a small vessel there should have been poison so that one’s soul moved to the dolmen stones. A version that living people entered dolmens and were locked with the plug from the outside is evidenced by the fact that skeletons of healthy people were found there, sometimes even skeletons of women and children. Let’s read a brief description of such vessels from V.I. Markovin’s book [Dolmens of the Western Caucasus, 1978]
The walls of dolmen vessels are thin. Admixtures in the material of which the vessels are made are well grinded so as not to impede thorough moulding. As admixtures that were supposed to “tread” clay and prevent it from cracking while being burnt, ancient potters added crushed shells of river molluscs, calcite crystals, grinded granite, and well sifted sand. They were excellent masters of their craft... Among ceramics of such kind there are even well-preserved items that produce a rather bright impression. The surface of the vessels, unlike that of napiform vessels, is not smooth but rough, as if combed with a widely spaced comb. Furthermore, scratches (grooves) cover not only the front side, but the inner side of a vessel, too. Uneven burning that leaves either deep black or bright brick-red spots, combined with hatching to prevent smoothing, makes vessels shimmer and vibrate in the light, whereas the ornament of zigzags, herring-bone patterns, peaks and little circles, in some places hardly noticeable and in other places deeply pressed, makes ancient ceramics absolutely beautiful. It’s a pity however that we now have mostly fragments that are nearly non-restorable.
8.4. Certain conclusions
Now let’s show that this hypothesis responds to many dolmen riddles and has no contradictions:
1. It has a clear scientific and physical substantiation of the process, which is not beyond the current human knowledge.
2. Proportionality is crucial because it is important to achieve the given frequencies.
3. Dolmen orientation is significant, for dolmens should face the source of vibrating (RErum) energy.
4. The hypothesis explains why dolmens were built both solitary and in groups. They were intended for various DNA – not just human, but also animal.
5. It is clear that it’s possible to erect a dolmen without regulation if you know accurate dimensions of the dolmen chamber. In such case no aperture is needed, as we can observe in some dolmens.
6. It becomes clear why grooves in dolmen slabs are thoroughly adjusted: the task was to eliminate any shift of the slabs or alteration of the planes incline, otherwise sound would have immediately changed.
So, what could dolmens be used for? Well, it is a truly bottomless subject where imagination has plenty of space to spread. In a similar way a question may be asked for which purposes electricity could be used. For anything you wish!
At least for:
connection with the UndergroundKingdom;
remote connection for thousands of kilometres;
human health recovery;
synchronization of life with DNA reamer recovery.
You may extend the above list as you like. Hence, as I have written in the beginning, among other things the word dolmen means “changing the destiny” or “mindful”, and the major purpose of dolmens in my opinion is influencing biological organisms at the genetic level by means of a DNA-modulated wave. We won’t discuss the objectives of such influence here, since there are various opinions on the matter, both negative and positive. Moreover, it should be noted that mounds work in a similar way and may well be called “flatland dolmens”.
In ancient times a network of mounds and dolmens was created, which covered a vast territory in our country and contained thousands of such stone structures. Unfortunately, most of them are now ruined. Those who invested so much effort into construction of dolmens and mounds surely had certain civilization-scale goals and tasks. In the dolmen structure and supposed operation we can clearly see a technological rather than religious process of influence over nature.